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Multiple antibiotic resistant pathogens represent a major clinical challenge in both human and veterinary context. It is now well-understood that the genes that encode resistance are context independent. That is, the same gene is commonly present in otherwise very disparate pathogens in both humans and production and companion animals, and among bacteria(More)
Of the 200+ serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, only O1 or O139 strains are reported to cause cholera, and mostly in endemic regions. Cholera outbreaks elsewhere are considered to be via importation of pathogenic strains. Using established animal models, we show that diverse V. cholerae strains indigenous to a non-endemic environment (Sydney, Australia),(More)
We have sequenced the ebgA (evolved beta-galactosidase) gene of Escherichia coli K12. The sequence shows 50% nucleotide identity with the E. coli lacZ gene, demonstrating that the two genes are related by descent from a common ancestral gene. Comparison of the two sequences suggests that the ebgA gene has recently been under selection. A significant excess(More)
BACKGROUND The direct isolation of integron gene cassettes from cultivated and environmental microbial sources allows an assessment of the impact of the integron/gene cassette system on the emergence of new phenotypes, such as drug resistance or virulence. A structural approach is being exploited to investigate the modularity and function of novel integron(More)
BACKGROUND Although integrons and their associated gene cassettes are present in ~10% of bacteria and can represent up to 3% of the genome in which they are found, very few have been properly identified and annotated in public databases. These genetic elements have been overlooked in comparison to other vectors that facilitate lateral gene transfer between(More)
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) has been crucial in the evolution of the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. The two major virulence factors are present on two different mobile genetic elements, a bacteriophage containing the cholera toxin genes and a genomic island (GI) containing the intestinal adhesin genes. Non-toxigenic V. cholerae in the aquatic(More)
Mobile gene cassettes captured within integron arrays encompass a vast and diverse pool of genetic novelty. In most cases, functional annotation of gene cassettes directly recovered by cassette-PCR is obscured by their characteristically high sequence novelty. This inhibits identification of those specific functions or biological features that might(More)
BACKGROUND The integron is a genetic recombination system that catalyses the acquisition of genes on mobilisable elements called gene cassettes. In Vibrio species, multiple acquired gene cassettes form a cassette array that can comprise 1-3% of the bacterial genome. Since 75% of these gene cassettes contain genes encoding proteins of uncharacterised(More)
The sequence of ebgR, the gene that encodes the EBG repressor, was determined. There is 44% DNA sequence identity between ebgR and lacI, the gene that encodes the LAC repressor. There is also 25% identity between the amino acid sequence of lacI and the deduced amino acid sequence of ebgR. The sequence of 596 bp distal to ebgA, the structural gene for EBG(More)
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