Harold Pashler

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People often have trouble performing 2 relatively simple tasks concurrently. The causes of this interference and its implications for the nature of attentional limitations have been controversial for 40 years, but recent experimental findings are beginning to provide some answers. Studies of the psychological refractory period effect indicate a stubborn(More)
Detection of change when one display of familiar objects replaces another display might be based purely upon visual codes, or also on identity information (i.e., knowing what was present where in the initial display). Displays of 10 alphanumeric characters were presented and, after a brief offset, were presented again in the same position, with or without a(More)
  • H Pashler
  • Journal of experimental psychology. Human…
  • 1984
This article examines the attentional limits responsible for task slowing in the overlapping task (refractory period) paradigm. Five experiments are reported in which stimulus factors were manipulated in visual search tasks performed in isolation or temporally overlapping with another task. Bottleneck models suggest that second-task slowing is caused by(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studiesofemotion, personality, and social cognition have drawn much attention in recent years, with high-profile studies frequently reporting extremely high (e.g., >.8) correlations between brain activation and personality measures. We show that these correlations are higher than should be expected given the(More)
The authors performed a meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect to illuminate the effects of temporal variables that have been neglected in previous reviews. This review found 839 assessments of distributed practice in 317 experiments located in 184 articles. Effects of spacing (consecutive massed presentations vs. spaced learning episodes) and lag(More)
  • H Pashler
  • Journal of experimental psychology. Human…
  • 1994
Research suggests that dual-task interference is caused by a central bottleneck (together with response grouping and impaired preparation). The emphasis placed on the 1st response in these experiments, however, may have discouraged the sharing of processing resources between tasks. In the present experiment, instructions placed equal emphasis on 2 choice(More)
Quantitative theories with free parameters often gain credence when they closely fit data. This is a mistake. A good fit reveals nothing about the flexibility of the theory (how much it cannot fit), the variability of the data (how firmly the data rule out what the theory cannot fit), or the likelihood of other outcomes (perhaps the theory could have fit(More)
A partial report procedure was used to test the ability of observers to split attention over noncontiguous locations. Observers reported the identity of 2 targets that appeared within a 5 x 5 stimulus array, and cues (validity = 80%) informed them of the 2 most likely target locations. On invalid trials, 1 of the targets appeared directly in between the(More)
  • H Pashler
  • The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology…
  • 1994
Dual-task research has revealed a response-selection bottleneck: response selection cannot occur simultaneously in two different tasks, though perceptual processing may overlap response selection (Welford, 1952; Pashler & Johnston, 1989). In serial performance with preview, the same task is performed repeatedly, but stimuli are available well before(More)
The ability of human observers to discriminate the orientation of a pair of straight lines differing by 3 degrees improved with practice. The improvement did not transfer across hemifield or across quadrants within the same hemifield. The practice effect occurred whether or not observers were given feedback. However, orientation discrimination did not(More)