Harold M. Schoolman

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In 1986, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) assembled a large multidisciplinary, multisite team to work on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a collaborative research project aimed at reducing fundamental barriers to the application of computers to medicine. Beyond its tangible products, the UMLS Knowledge Sources, and its influence on the(More)
Builders of expert systems have generally accepted the principle that computer software should not be subject to government regulation if health care practitioners can be expected to interpret and apply the systems intelligently. The purpose of this paper is to identify the information that builders must make available to permit health care practitioners to(More)
The rapid advances in computer and communication technology in the 1970's have enabled large interactive scientific and technical information retrieval systems to be implemented. Major search services today offer on-line access to millions of bibliographic citations and an increasing number of "electronic handbooks." In addition, development of knowledge(More)
Medical informatics attempts to provide the theoretic and scientific basis for the use of automated information systems in biomedicine. Even though a new field, its roots are in the 19th century. The National Library of Medicine (NLM) began classifying the medical literature and publishing the Index Medicus in 1897; in the early 1960s, the growth of the(More)
A REVIVAL OF INTEREST in the virus theory of causation of leukemia, since Engelbreth-Holm and Frederiksen concluded that their experiments6 had been in error because of the unreproducibility of their results,’9 was spurred by the observations by Gross” in 1951 and subsequently,’214 and confirmed in 1956 by Wooley and SmalP’; namely, that cell-free filtrates(More)