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Optical methods are shown to monitor action potentials from a population of nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis of Xenopus. Calcium antagonists such as cadmium and nickel ions block a component of the action potential that probably reflects a calcium-mediated potassium conductance, and tetrodotoxin blocks an inward sodium current, revealing a calcium(More)
In situ hybridization histochemistry and immunocytochemistry were used to study the prenatal expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) cells in the mouse. Cells expressing LHRH mRNA and peptide product were first detected on embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5) in the olfactory pit. On E12.5, the majority of LHRH cells were located on "tracks"(More)
Vasopressin and oxytocin are made and released by neurons of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Pulse labeling these neurons with radioactive amino acid indicates that the two hormones and their respective neurophysin carrier proteins are synthesized as parts of separate precursor proteins. The precursors seem to be processed into smaller,(More)
Mammals manifest circadian behaviour timed by an endogenous clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Considerable progress has been made in identifying the molecular basis of the circadian clock, but the mechanisms by which it is translated into cyclic firing activity, high during the day and low at night, are still poorly understood. GABA(More)
The hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) is the major peptidergic neurosecretory system through which the brain controls peripheral physiology. The hormones vasopressin and oxytocin released from the HNS at the neurohypophysis serve homeostatic functions of water balance and reproduction. From a physiological viewpoint, the core question on the HNS has(More)
Magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system that express and secrete the nonapeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were evaluated for the expression of multiple genes in single magnocellular neurons from the rat supraoptic nucleus using a single cell RT-PCR protocol. We found that all cells representing the two(More)
Double immunofluorescence studies using antibodies against NF-L and peripherin revealed three distinct subpopulations of neurons in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In the adult rat, 46% of the DRG neurons were small and peripherin-positive (NF-L-negative), and 48% were large and NF-L-positive (peripherin-negative). About 6% were both peripherin- and(More)
Vasopressin (VP) potentiates the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from anterior pituitary cells in vitro, and both CRF and VP have been found in portal blood. These data support the hypothesis that VP acts synergistically with CRF to cause the secretion of ACTH in vivo but the origin of(More)
Seven mouse monoclonal antibodies (IgGs) were produced against rat neurophysins (NPs). Three were specifically directed against vasopressin-associated NP (NP-AVP), and four were specific for oxytocin-associated NP (NP-OT). These specificities were observed in liquid phase assays, immunoblot, and immunoprecipitation experiments. Homozygous Brattleboro rat(More)