Harold Burger

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The third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120, plays a central role in the interaction of the virus envelope with the cell surface chemokine receptors, triggering membrane fusion and virus entry into human lymphocytes and macrophages. The CXCR4 and CCR5 chemokine receptors are used by "X4-tropic" and "R5-tropic" viruses,(More)
The family 3A cytochromes P-450, among the most abundant members of this supergene family of microsomal hemoproteins expressed in animal and human liver, are inducible by glucocorticoids but also by such antiglucocorticoids as pregnenolone 16 alpha-carbonitrile (PCN). To investigate the mechanism for this nonclassical glucocorticoid effect, we analyzed the(More)
Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) may reduce HIV sexual transmission by lowering genital HIV levels. A prospective study of men starting ART (n = 25) demonstrated rapid, substantial reductions in semen HIV RNA. However, despite an undetectable blood viral load, isolated semen HIV shedding was detected at more than one visit in 12 of 25 (48%)(More)
Recent developments have made it possible to reverse transcribe RNA and amplify cDNA molecules of > 10 kb in length, including the HIV-1 genome. To use long reverse transcription combined with polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to best advantage, it is necessary to determine the frequency of recombination during the combined procedure and then take steps to(More)
We have studied the interactions of chlorogenic acid (CHL) and 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzaldehyde (HNB) with the components of the rat hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase) system. CHL and HNB are competitive inhibitors of glucose 6-phosphate (Glc-6-P) hydrolysis in intact microsomes with Ki values of 0.26 and 0.22 mm, respectively. CHL is without effect on(More)
BACKGROUND There is increasing recognition of recombinant HIV-1 strains globally, but it has been unclear whether recombination results from superinfection during untreated, chronic infection. OBJECTIVE To search for evidence of recombination and superinfection in Africa, where multiple HIV-1 subtypes facilitate identification of strains. METHODS Serial(More)
To initiate infection, HIV-1 requires a primary receptor, CD4, and a secondary receptor, principally the chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Coreceptor usage plays a critical role in HIV-1 disease progression. HIV-1 transmitted in vivo generally uses CCR5 (R5), but later CXCR4 (X4) strains may emerge; this shift heralds CD4+ cell depletion and clinical(More)
HIV-1 budding is directed primarily by two motifs in Gag p6 designated as late domain-1 and −2 that recruit ESCRT machinery by binding Tsg101 and Alix, respectively, and by poorly characterized determinants in the capsid (CA) domain. Here, we report that a conserved Gag p6 residue, S40, impacts budding mediated by all of these determinants. Whereas budding(More)
Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes were isolated from rat liver by digitonin/collagenase perfusion for investigating the acinar heterogeneity of amino acid transport activities related to glutamine and ammonia metabolism. Immunocytochemical staining of the respective subpopulations for glutamine synthetase demonstrated that periportal subpopulations were(More)