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Airway remodelling and emphysema are major structural abnormalities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In addition, pulmonary vascular remodelling may occur and contribute to pulmonary hypertension, a comorbidity of COPD. Increased cholinergic activity in COPD contributes to airflow limitation and, possibly, to inflammation and airway(More)
Since the discovery nearly 60 years ago, cAMP is envisioned as one of the most universal and versatile second messengers. The tremendous feature of cAMP to tightly control highly diverse physiologic processes, including calcium homeostasis, metabolism, secretion, muscle contraction, cell fate, and gene transcription, is reflected by the award of five Nobel(More)
Cigarette smoke-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-8 (IL-8) from inflammatory as well as structural cells in the airways, including airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, may contribute to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Despite the wide use of pharmacological treatment aimed at increasing(More)
BACKGROUND Using guinea pig tracheal preparations, we have recently shown that endogenous arginase activity attenuates inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (iNANC) nerve-mediated airway smooth muscle relaxation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) production--due to competition with neuronal NO-synthase (nNOS) for the common substrate, L-arginine. Furthermore,(More)
Previous studies suggest that the large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BKCa) channel and Rho-kinase play major roles in the control of urinary bladder tone. Here, we investigated their involvement in β-adrenoceptor (AR)-mediated relaxation of rat and human bladder. Concentration-response curves of isoprenaline and mirabegron-induced bladder relaxation were(More)
Dysfunctional regulation of airway smooth muscle tone is a feature of obstructive airway diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Airway smooth muscle contraction is directly associated with changes in the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC), which is increased by Rho and decreased by Rac. Although cyclic adenosine(More)
Recent studies have indicated that arginase, which converts L-arginine into L-ornithine and urea, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of various pulmonary disorders. In asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis, increased arginase activity in the airways may contribute to obstruction and hyperresponsiveness of the(More)
RATIONALE In a guinea pig model of allergic asthma, using perfused tracheal preparations ex vivo, we demonstrated that L-arginine limitation due to increased arginase activity underlies a deficiency of bronchodilating nitric oxide (NO) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) after the allergen-induced early and late asthmatic reaction. OBJECTIVES Using the(More)
The novel once-daily β₂-agonist bronchodilator drug olodaterol has recently been shown to be effective in patients with allergic asthma for >24 hours. An increased cholinergic tone common to these patients may decrease the effectiveness of β₂-agonists. This could provide a rationale for combination therapy with olodaterol and the long-acting anticholinergic(More)
Airway remodelling, including smooth muscle remodelling, is a primary cause of airflow limitation in asthma. Recent evidence links bronchoconstriction to airway remodelling in asthma. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A possible player is the multifunctional cytokine TGF-β, which plays an important role in airway remodelling. Guinea pig lung(More)