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The paper revises and clarifies definitions of the term scale and scaling conversions for imaging spectroscopy of soil and vegetation. We demonstrate a new four-dimensional scale concept that includes not only spatial but also the spectral, directional and temporal components. Three scaling remote sensing techniques are reviewed: (1) radiative transfer, (2)(More)
Monitoring tropical deforestation and forest degradation is one of the central elements for the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in developing countries (REDD+) scheme. Current arrangements for monitoring are based on remote sensing and field measurements. Since monitoring is the periodic process of assessing forest stands(More)
This paper describes the results of a study towards the use of MERIS for land cover mapping at a national scale, using the Netherlands as a test site. th 2003 were used in this study. The Dutch land use database LGN was used as a reference by aggregating the database from 25 m to 300 m. Results showed very good geometric characteristics of the MERIS images(More)
The possibility of quantifying iron content in the topsoil of the slopes of the El Hacho Mountain complex in Southern Spain using imaging spectroscopy is investigated. Laboratory, field and airborne spectrometer (ROSIS) data are acquired, in combination with soil samples, which are analysed for dithionite extractable iron (Fe d) content. Analysis of the(More)
Peatlands accumulated large carbon stocks as peat in historical times. Currently however , many peatlands are on the verge of becoming sources with their carbon se-questration function becoming sensitive to environmental changes such as increases in temperature, decreasing water table and enhanced nitrogen deposition. Long term 5 changes in vegetation(More)
During the last years commercial hyperspectral imaging sensors have been miniaturized and their performance has been demonstrated on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). However currently the commercial hyperspectral systems still require minimum payload capacity of approximately 3 kg, forcing usage of rather large UAVs. In this article we present a lightweight(More)
The presence of salt in the soil profile negatively affects the growth and development of vegetation. As a result, the spectral reflectance of vegetation canopies varies for different salinity levels. This research was conducted to (1) investigate the capability of satellite-based hyperspectral vegetation indices (VIs) for estimating soil salinity in(More)
The Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) is a payload component of Envisat-1. MERIS is operated over land with a standard 15 band setting acquiring images in the VIS and NIR part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Data are acquired at 300 m (full resolution) and 1,200 m (reduced resolution) spatial resolution over land, thus vegetation can be(More)