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Anastrozole (Arimidex) is a novel, selective, and potent aromatase inhibitor used for the treatment of postmenopausal breast cancer. The drug has been shown to inhibit in vivo aromatization by 96--97% and to suppress plasma estrogen levels by 84--94%. However, the effects of anastrozole on intratumoral estrogen levels have not been studied. Here we report(More)
Estrogen deprivation is an effective approach for treatment of hormone sensitive breast cancer. While much is known about plasma estrogen levels with respect to castration in premenopausal women and use of aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women, currently there is increasing interest in intra-tumour estrogen production. However, knowledge about(More)
10 patients with hypothyroidism were examined before and 3 months after initiation of thyroxin treatment. All patients had high levels of plasma total cholesterol and total phospholipids, and 5 had an additional hypertriglyceridaemia. 1 patient had a prolonged primary bleeding time and all had a prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time and(More)
We previously reported that defects in apoptotic pathways (mutations in the TP53 gene) predicted resistance to doxorubicin monotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether cell proliferation, as assessed by mitotic frequency and Ki-67 levels, may provide additional predictive information in the same tumours and to assess any potential correlations(More)
10 healthy male volunteers fasted for 72 hours. Their plasma concentration of free fatty acid increased more than two-fold, to 1.8 mmol/l. The number of reversible venous "in vivo" platelet aggregates increased significantly (p less than 0.01); this figure correlated with the concentration of long-chain saturated free fatty acid in plasma (p less than(More)
Aminoglutethimide (AG) has been the most widely used aromatase inhibitor in breast cancer patients to date. Commercially, AG (Orimeten) is available as a racemate (DL-AG). Previous studies suggested the stereoisomers of AG (D-AG and L-AG) to differ considerably in their affinities and potencies to inhibit different cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes, with(More)
Steroid sulphates such as oestrone sulphate (OE1S) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) have been suggested to be of biological importance in different disease states such as breast cancer and atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that drugs such as aminoglutethimide and rifampicin that induce P450-dependent mixed-function oxygenases(More)
We introduce a novel type of artificial neural network structure and training procedure that results in networks that are provably, quantitatively more robust to adversarial samples than classical, end-to-end trained classifiers. The main idea of our approach is to force the network to make predictions on what the given instance of the class under(More)