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The role of telerobotics for space exploration in placing human cognition on other worlds is limited almost entirely by the speed of light, and the consequent communications latency that results from large distances. This latency is the time delay between the human brain at one end, and the telerobotic effector and sensor at the other end. While(More)
Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon L1 or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer(More)
All skeletal muscle can produce roughly the same maximal cross-sectional force; however, the power (energy X time-1) required to develop and maintain that force increases with increasing contraction velocity. Thus the rate of muscle tension development may be of primary importance in setting the energy demand of contracting muscle. We have estimated the(More)
For four centuries new technology and telescopes of increasing diameter have driven astronomical discovery for the simple reason that astronomy is a photon-limited field. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), to date the largest UV/optical astronomical space telescope, has demonstrated the breadth of fundamental astrophysics that can be extracted from(More)
Four IRAS-detected early-type galaxies were observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). 6958 follows a de Vaucouleurs proÐle. The ratio of 15 km/7 km Ñux decreases with radius in these galaxies, approaching the values empirically observed for purely stellar systems. In NGC 5866, the 7 and 15 km emission is concentrated in the edge-on dust lane. All(More)
Introduction: Initial, science-directed human exploration of Mars will benefit from capabilities in which human explorers remain in orbit to control tel-erobotic systems on the surface (Figure 1). Low-latency, high-bandwidth telerobotics (LLT) from Mars orbit offers opportunities for what the terrestrial robot-ics community considers to be high-quality(More)
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