Harith Akram

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BACKGROUND Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as a treatment option for severe Tourette's syndrome on the basis of findings from open-label series and small double-blind trials. We aimed to further assess the safety and efficacy of bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS in patient's with severe Tourette's syndrome. METHODS In a(More)
OBJECT Bibliometrics are the methods used to quantitatively analyze scientific literature. In this study, bibliometrics were used to quantify the scientific output of neurosurgical departments throughout Great Britain and Ireland. METHODS A list of neurosurgical departments was obtained from the Society of British Neurological Surgeons website. Individual(More)
Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its etiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia (BG). Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic(More)
OBJECT The aim of this study was to design a checklist with a scoring system for reporting on studies of surgical interventions for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and to validate it by a review of the recent literature. METHODS A checklist with a scoring system, the Surgical Trigeminal Neuralgia Score (STNS), was devised partially based on the validated(More)
INTRODUCTION Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus can be a highly effective treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), experiencing Levodopa-induced-dyskinesia (LID). Stimulation programming can focus simply on eliminating dyskinesia, or can also attempt to relieve the rigidity, tremor or akinesia of PD itself. METHODS In this study,(More)
BACKGROUND Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a well-established treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) insufficiently controlled with medical therapies. This study presents the long-term outcomes of patients with PD treated with STN-DBS using an MRI-guided/MRI-verified approach without microelectrode(More)
Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of 'paradoxical kinesis' in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the(More)
OBJECTIVE To present outcomes in a cohort of medically intractable chronic cluster headache (CCH) patients treated with ventral tegmental area (VTA) deep brain stimulation (DBS). METHODS In an uncontrolled open-label prospective study, 21 patients (17 male; mean age 52 years) with medically refractory CCH were selected for ipsilateral VTA-DBS by a(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson disease (PD) has traditionally been reserved for the late stages of the disease. There is evidence that DBS is also effective if applied earlier in the disease course. Changes in the frequency of DBS procedures in the UK over a 15-year period were investigated. METHODS A retrospective(More)
BACKGROUND Bowstringing may occur when excessive fibrosis develops around extension cables in the neck after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Though the occurrence of this phenomenon is rare, we have noted that it tends to cause maximal discomfort when the cables cross superficially over the convexity of the clavicle. We hypothesise that bowstringing(More)