Harith Akram

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BACKGROUND Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a well-established treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) insufficiently controlled with medical therapies. This study presents the long-term outcomes of patients with PD treated with STN-DBS using an MRI-guided/MRI-verified approach without microelectrode(More)
Malignant spinal cord compression is an important neuro-oncological emergency, the management of which has been changing throughout the last 30 years. We hereby attempt to present an overview of this pathological entity with general management concepts, paying special attention to the palliative surgical treatments available, the decision-making process and(More)
BACKGROUND Surgical interventions are used for trigeminal neuralgia when drug treatment fails. Surgical treatments divide into two main categories, ablative (destructive) or non-ablative. These treatments can be done at three different sites: peripherally, at the Gasserian ganglion level, and within the posterior fossa of the skull. OBJECTIVES To assess(More)
BACKGROUND Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as a treatment option for severe Tourette's syndrome on the basis of findings from open-label series and small double-blind trials. We aimed to further assess the safety and efficacy of bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS in patient's with severe Tourette's syndrome. METHODS In a(More)
Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular abnormality characterised by abnormal connections between the intra- and extracranial venous systems and is usually found in children. In most instances, a sinus pericranii presents as a soft scalp swelling that appears with the patient in the recumbent position and disappears in the erect position. We review two cases of(More)
OBJECT The aim of this study was to design a checklist with a scoring system for reporting on studies of surgical interventions for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and to validate it by a review of the recent literature. METHODS A checklist with a scoring system, the Surgical Trigeminal Neuralgia Score (STNS), was devised partially based on the validated(More)
Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its etiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia (BG). Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-verified deep brain stimulation relies on the correct interpretation of stereotactic imaging documenting lead location in relation to visible anatomic target. However, it has been suggested that local signal distortion from the lead itself renders its depiction on MRI unreliable. OBJECTIVE To compare lead(More)
Craniometaphyseal dysplasia (CMD) is a rare genetic bone remodelling disorder characterized by undertubulation of the long bones and sclerosis and hyperostosis of the skull base with cranial nerve impairment. To our knowledge there are no previous reported cases of autosomal dominant CMD and acquired Chiari type 1 malformation with cervicomedullary(More)