Harith Akram

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Sinus pericranii is a rare vascular abnormality characterised by abnormal connections between the intra- and extracranial venous systems and is usually found in children. In most instances, a sinus pericranii presents as a soft scalp swelling that appears with the patient in the recumbent position and disappears in the erect position. We review two cases of(More)
BACKGROUND Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed as a treatment option for severe Tourette's syndrome on the basis of findings from open-label series and small double-blind trials. We aimed to further assess the safety and efficacy of bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS in patient's with severe Tourette's syndrome. METHODS In a(More)
Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its etiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia (BG). Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic(More)
OBJECT Bibliometrics are the methods used to quantitatively analyze scientific literature. In this study, bibliometrics were used to quantify the scientific output of neurosurgical departments throughout Great Britain and Ireland. METHODS A list of neurosurgical departments was obtained from the Society of British Neurological Surgeons website. Individual(More)
OBJECT The aim of this study was to design a checklist with a scoring system for reporting on studies of surgical interventions for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and to validate it by a review of the recent literature. METHODS A checklist with a scoring system, the Surgical Trigeminal Neuralgia Score (STNS), was devised partially based on the validated(More)
INTRODUCTION Deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus can be a highly effective treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), experiencing Levodopa-induced-dyskinesia (LID). Stimulation programming can focus simply on eliminating dyskinesia, or can also attempt to relieve the rigidity, tremor or akinesia of PD itself. METHODS In this study,(More)
BACKGROUND Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) represents a well-established treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) insufficiently controlled with medical therapies. This study presents the long-term outcomes of patients with PD treated with STN-DBS using an MRI-guided/MRI-verified approach without microelectrode(More)
Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of 'paradoxical kinesis' in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the(More)
OBJECTIVE To present outcomes in a cohort of medically intractable chronic cluster headache (CCH) patients treated with ventral tegmental area (VTA) deep brain stimulation (DBS). METHODS In an uncontrolled open-label prospective study, 21 patients (17 male; mean age 52 years) with medically refractory CCH were selected for ipsilateral VTA-DBS by a(More)
OBJECTIVE Infection of deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware has a significant impact on patient morbidity. Previous experience suggests that infection rates appear to be higher after implantable pulse generator (IPG) replacement surgery than after the de novo DBS procedure. In this study the authors examine the effect of a change in practice during DBS IPG(More)