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Hematopoietic stem cells and their progenitors exhibit multilineage patterns of gene expression. Molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and refinement of these patterns during cell fate determination remain unexplored because of the absence of suitable experimental systems. Using PU.1(-/-) progenitors, we demonstrate that at subthreshold levels,(More)
The transcription factor IRF4 regulates immunoglobulin class switch recombination and plasma cell differentiation. Its differing concentrations appear to regulate mutually antagonistic programs of B and plasma cell gene expression. We show IRF4 to be also required for generation of germinal center (GC) B cells. Its transient expression in vivo induced the(More)
The molecular crosstalk between the interleukin 7 receptor (IL-7R) and the precursor to the B cell antigen receptor (pre-BCR) in B lymphopoiesis has not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that in pre-B cells, the IL-7R but not the pre-BCR was coupled to phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and the kinase Akt; signaling by this pathway inhibited(More)
The AP1 transcription factor Batf3 is required for homeostatic development of CD8α(+) classical dendritic cells that prime CD8 T-cell responses against intracellular pathogens. Here we identify an alternative, Batf3-independent pathway in mice for CD8α(+) dendritic cell development operating during infection with intracellular pathogens and mediated by the(More)
Proteins of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors are critical for lymphocyte activation in the immune system. In particular, NFATs are important regulators of inducible IL-4 gene expression. Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is an immune system-restricted interferon regulatory factor that is required for(More)
Delivering drug molecules into the cell is one of the major challenges in the process of drug development. In past, cell penetrating peptides have been successfully used for delivering a wide variety of therapeutic molecules into various types of cells for the treatment of multiple diseases. These peptides have unique ability to gain access to the interior(More)
OBJECTIVE Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive optical technique for bedside evaluation of cerebral metabolism that has clinical potential for monitoring the efficacy of pharmacological treatment. In this pilot study, we investigated the cognitive effects of methylphenidate (MP) on prefrontal function using fNIRS in healthy(More)
The B-lymphocyte lineage is a leading system for analyzing gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that orchestrate distinct cell fate transitions. Upon antigen recognition, B cells can diversify their immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire via somatic hypermutation (SHM) and/or class switch DNA recombination (CSR) before differentiating into antibody-secreting plasma(More)
One of the major challenges in designing a peptide-based vaccine is the identification of antigenic regions in an antigen that can stimulate B-cell's response, also called B-cell epitopes. In the past, several methods have been developed for the prediction of conformational and linear (or continuous) B-cell epitopes. However, the existing methods for(More)
surface proteins B220 and CD19 are generated (reviewed by Melchers et al., 1995). These proteins serve as early B lineage developmental markers and execute important functions in mature B cells. An early program of gene expression induced specifically in pro B cells (Ig) receptor-associated signaling proteins Ig␣ (mb-1) Harvard Medical School and Ig␤ (B29),(More)