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The RV144 vaccine trial in Thailand demonstrated that an HIV vaccine could prevent infection in humans and highlights the importance of understanding protective immunity against HIV. We used a nonhuman primate model to define immune and genetic mechanisms of protection against mucosal infection by the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). A plasmid DNA(More)
An effective HIV vaccine must elicit immune responses that recognize genetically diverse viruses. It must generate CD8+ T lymphocytes that control HIV replication and CD4+ T lymphocytes that provide help for the generation and maintenance of both cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus. Creating immunogens that can elicit cellular immune(More)
Dasatinib, a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has significant antileukemic effects against various imatinib mesylate-resistant BCR/ABL mutants. Despite well-documented inhibitory effects of dasatinib on BCR/ABL kinase, the exact downstream cellular events leading to generation of its potent antileukemic effects remain to be defined. We provide(More)
While mycobacteria have been proposed as vaccine vectors because of their persistence and safety, little has been done systematically to optimize their immunogenicity in nonhuman primates. We successfully generated recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG) expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag and Pol as multigenic, nonintegrating vectors, but(More)
To create an HIV-1 vaccine that generates sufficient breadth of immune recognition to protect against the genetically diverse forms of the circulating virus, we have been exploring vaccines based on consensus and mosaic protein designs. Increasing the valency of a mosaic immunogen cocktail increases epitope coverage but with diminishing returns, as(More)
UNLABELLED An effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine must induce protective antibody responses, as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses, that can be effective despite extraordinary diversity of HIV-1. The consensus and mosaic immunogens are complete but artificial proteins, computationally designed to elicit immune responses(More)
A vaccine that elicits both specific antibodies and IFN-gamma-producing T cells is required to protect against pre-erythrocytic malaria. Among the most promising approaches to induce such complex immunity are heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens, in particular ones containing live viral vector. We have demonstrated previously that adenovectors(More)
An effective HIV vaccine must elicit immune responses that recognize genetically diverse viruses1, 2. It must generate CD8+ T lymphocytes that control HIV replication and CD4+ T lymphocytes that provide help for the generation and maintenance of both cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus3–5. Creating immunogens that can elicit cellular(More)
One of the most puzzling observations in HIV research is the lack of pathogenicity in most nonhuman primate species that are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Despite this, natural hosts experience a level of viremia similar to humans infected with HIV or macaques infected with SIV. To determine the role of adaptive immune(More)
Licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. Recombinant attenuated measles virus (rMV) derived from the Edmonston Zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian(More)