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Axonal injury occurs even in the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) measurements of brain N:-acetylaspartate (NAA), a marker of axonal integrity, show that this axonal injury can occur even in the absence of clinically evident functional impairments. To test whether cortical adaptive responses contribute(More)
Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease, there can be substantial axonal injury and loss. We therefore hypothesized that adaptive cortical changes may contribute to limiting functional impairment, particularly in the early stages of the disease. To test our hypothesis, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to(More)
A patient was followed after the new onset of hemiparesis from relapse of MS with serial MR spectroscopy and functional MRI. The association of clinical improvement with recovery of N-acetylaspartate, a marker of neuronal integrity, and progressive reduction of abnormally large functional MRI cortical activation with movement demonstrates that dynamic(More)
Previous work has demonstrated potentially adaptive cortical plasticity that increases with brain injury in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, animal studies showing use-dependent changes in motor cortex organization suggest that functional changes also may occur in response to disability. We therefore wished to test whether brain injury and(More)
We wished to contrast cortical activation during hand movements in profoundly weak patients with motor neuropathy and in normal controls using a paradigm that is behaviourally matched between the two groups. Previous work has suggested that a passive movement task could be appropriate. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we first(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited small-artery disease that clinically involves only the brain. Particularly early in the disease, patients can show substantial or complete recovery after individual strokes. Cortical functional reorganization may(More)
Modern cognitive neuroscience provides a powerful framework in which biological models of recovery and neurorehabilitation can be constructed and tested. The widespread availability, relatively low cost and informativeness of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has made it the most popular of the techniques available to help with this task. Here,(More)
OBJECTIVES Functional reorganisation of the motor or sensory cortex has been demonstrated in animals after section of mixed peripheral nerves. Here functional changes in the motor cortex specifically after peripheral motor denervation in humans are investigated. METHODS Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to study brain activation during a finger(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have suggested that callosal afferents may mediate inhibition of the ipsilateral motor cortex (IMC) during unilateral hand movements. To test this concept, we used fMRI to determine whether acallosal patients have increased IMC activation with either complex or simple unilateral finger movements. Neither the(More)