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This paper evaluates an inexpensive and intuitive approach for providing non-visual access to graphic material, called a vibro-audio interface. The system works by allowing users to freely explore graphical information on the touchscreen of a commercially available tablet and synchronously triggering vibration patterns and auditory information whenever an(More)
This paper summarizes the implementation, evaluation, and usability of non-visual panning operations for accessing graphics rendered on touch screen devices. Four novel non-visual panning techniques were implemented and experimentally evaluated on our experimental prototype, called a Vibro-Audio Interface (VAI), which provides completely non-visual access(More)
Touchscreen devices, such as smartphones and tablets, represent a modern solution for providing graphical access to people with blindness and visual impairment (BVI). However, a significant problem with these solutions is their limited screen real estate, which necessitates panning or zooming operations for accessing large-format graphical materials such as(More)
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