Harald zur Hausen

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We present an expansion of the classification of the family Papillomaviridae, which now contains 29 genera formed by 189 papillomavirus (PV) types isolated from humans (120 types), non-human mammals, birds and reptiles (64, 3 and 2 types, respectively). To accommodate the number of PV genera exceeding the Greek alphabet, the prefix "dyo" is used, continuing(More)
One hundred eighteen papillomavirus (PV) types have been completely described, and a yet higher number of presumed new types have been detected by preliminary data such as subgenomic amplicons. The classification of this diverse group of viruses, which include important human pathogens, has been debated for three decades. This article describes the(More)
The papillomavirus family represents a remarkably heterogeneous group of viruses. At present, 77 distinct genotypes have been identified in humans and partial sequences have been obtained from more than 30 putative novel genotypes. Geographic differences in base composition of individual genotypes are generally small and suggest a low mutation rate and thus(More)
Viruses including Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a human equivalent of murine mammary tumour virus (MMTV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) have been implicated in the aetiology of human breast cancer. We report the presence of HPV DNA sequences in areolar tissue and tumour tissue samples from female patients with breast carcinoma. The presence of virus in the(More)
Approximately 35 years ago a role of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in cervical cancer has been postulated. Today it is well established that this very heterogeneous virus family harbours important human carcinogens, causing not only the vast majority of cervical, but also a substantial proportion of other anogenital and head and neck cancers. In addition,(More)
During the past 20 years, several types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified that cause specific types of cancers. The etiology of cancer of the cervix has been linked to several types of HPV, with a high preponderance of HPV16. The role of these virus infections has been established 1) by the regular presence of HPV DNA in the respective(More)
DNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 has been found closely associated with human genital cancer, supporting the concept that members of this virus group are key factors in the aetiology of genital cancer. HPV 18 DNA sequences were also detected in cell lines derived from cervical cancer. We have now analysed these cell lines, HeLa, C4-1 and(More)
DNA from one biopsy sample of invasive cancer of the cervix contained sequences hybridizing with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 DNA only under nonstringent conditions. This DNA was molecularly cloned in lambda phage. Under stringent conditions of hybridization it cross-hybridized to a minor extent (less than 0.1%) with HPV types 10, 14, and 15 and(More)
Viruses may contribute to the development of human tumors by different mechanisms: indirectly by inducing immunosuppression or by modifying the host cell genome without persistence of viral DNA; directly by inducing oncoproteins or by altering the expression of host cell proteins at the site of viral DNA integration. Human cancers associated with(More)