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Humans expressing a defective form of the transcription factor AIRE (autoimmune regulator) develop multiorgan autoimmune disease. We used aire- deficient mice to test the hypothesis that this transcription factor regulates autoimmunity by promoting the ectopic expression of peripheral tissue- restricted antigens in medullary epithelial cells of the thymus.(More)
Evidence suggests that regulatory T cells expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 develop extrathymically and intrathymically. Mechanisms of extrathymic induction require further scrutiny, especially as proliferation and/or phenotypic changes of preexisting suppressor cells must be distinguished from true de novo generation. Here we report the conversion(More)
Cancer patients can harbor significant numbers of CD8 and CD4 T cells with specificities to tumor antigens (Ags). Yet, in most cases, such T cells fail to eradicate the tumor in vivo. Here, we investigated the interference of Ag-specific CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) with the tumor-specific CD8 T cell immune response in vivo, by monitoring the(More)
The chromosomal translocation t(7;9) in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) results in deregulated expression of a truncated, activated form of Notch 1 (TAN1) under the control of the T-cell receptor-beta (TCRB) locus. Although TAN1 efficiently induces T-ALL in mouse models, t(7;9) is present in less than 1% of human T-ALL cases. The recent(More)
T cell receptor agonists can induce the differentiation of regulatory T (T(R)) cells. We report here that the immunoglobulin kappa-controlled expression of an agonist in different cell types correlated with the phenotype of the generated T(R) cells. We found that aberrant expression on thymic stroma yielded predominantly CD4(+)CD25(+) T(R) cells,(More)
Foxp3+CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells are essential for the prevention of autoimmunity. T(reg) cells have an attenuated cytokine response to T-cell receptor stimulation, and can suppress the proliferation and effector function of neighbouring T cells. The forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) is selectively expressed in T(reg) cells,(More)
In T-cell precursors, the T-cell-receptor beta chain is expressed before the T-cell-receptor alpha chain and is sufficient to advance T-cell development in the absence of T-cell receptor alpha chains. In immature T cells, the T-cell-receptor beta protein can form disulphide-linked heterodimers with the pre-T-cell-receptor alpha chain and associate with(More)
Regulatory T (Treg) cells that express the Foxp3 transcription factor are essential for lymphoid homeostasis and immune tolerance to self. Other nonimmunological functions of Treg cells, such as controlling metabolic function in adipose tissue, are also emerging. Treg cells originate primarily in the thymus, but can also be elicited from conventional T(More)
The mechanism of self-tolerance is studied in T-cell-receptor transgenic mice expressing a receptor in many of their T cells for the male (H-Y) antigen in the context of class I H-2Db MHC antigens. Autospecific T cells are deleted in male mice. The deletion affects only transgene-expressing cells with a relatively high surface-density of CD8 molecules,(More)
Mechanisms of immunosuppression by CD4(+)CD25(+) suppressor T cells have been addressed using many in vitro and in vivo conditions. However, those studies have not yielded a single mode of action. This review will discuss the mechanisms of suppression, which include the local secretion of cytokines such as TGF-beta and direct cell contact through binding of(More)