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We review the use on ontologies for the integration of heterogeneous information sources. Based on an in-depth evaluation of existing approaches to this problem we discuss how ontologies are used to support the integration task. We evaluate and compare the languages used to represent the ontologies and the use of mappings between ontologies as well as to(More)
Microglia are cells of myeloid origin that populate the CNS during early development and form the brain's innate immune cell type. They perform homoeostatic activity in the normal CNS, a function associated with high motility of their ramified processes and their constant phagocytic clearance of cell debris. This debris clearance role is amplified in CNS(More)
Elimination of apoptotic neurons without inflammation is crucial for brain tissue homeostasis, but the molecular mechanism has not been firmly established. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) is a recently identified innate immune receptor. Here, we show expression of TREM2 in microglia. TREM2 stimulation induced DAP12 phosphorylation,(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) with a CD8(+) phenotype have the potential to recognize and attack major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-expressing brain cells. Most brain cells, including neurons, can be stimulated to present peptides to CD8(+) CTLs by MHC class I molecules, and are susceptible to CTL-mediated cytotoxicity in culture. In(More)
The genetics of complex disease produce alterations in the molecular interactions of cellular pathways whose collective effect may become clear through the organized structure of molecular networks. To characterize molecular systems associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), we constructed gene-regulatory networks in 1,647 postmortem brain(More)
Recent findings indicate that neurons are not merely passive targets of microglia but rather control microglial activity. The variety of different signals that neurons use to control microglia can be divided into two categories: 'Off' signals constitutively keep microglia in their resting state and antagonize proinflammatory activity. 'On' signals are(More)
In response to injury and inflammation of the CNS, brain cells including microglia and astrocytes secrete tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). This pro-inflammatory cytokine has been implicated in both neuronal cell death and survival. We now provide evidence that TNF affects the formation of neurites. Neurons cultured on astrocytic glial cells exhibited(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are rare in the healthy brain tissue, but are heavily expressed on microglial cells after inflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. We studied the conditions leading to the induction of MHC class II molecules in microglia by using explant cultures of neonatal rat hippocampus, a model of interacting(More)
BACKGROUND In multiple sclerosis, inflammation can successfully be prevented, while promoting repair is still a major challenge. Microglial cells, the resident phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), are hematopoietic-derived myeloid cells and express the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), an innate immune receptor. Myeloid(More)