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We have recently shown that transcription initiation RNAs (tiRNAs) are derived from sequences immediately downstream of transcription start sites. Here, using cytoplasmic and nuclear small RNA high-throughput sequencing datasets, we report the identification of a second class of nuclear-specific approximately 17- to 18-nucleotide small RNAs whose 3' ends(More)
We have used a sensitized ENU mutagenesis screen to produce mouse lines that carry mutations in genes required for epigenetic regulation. We call these lines Modifiers of murine metastable epialleles (Mommes). We report a basic molecular and phenotypic characterization for twenty of the Momme mouse lines, and in each case we also identify the causative(More)
Phenotypic variability among inbred littermates reared in controlled environments remains poorly understood. Metastable epialleles refer to loci that intrinsically behave in this way and a few examples have been described. They display differential methylation in association with differential expression. For example, inbred mice carrying the agouti viable(More)
Piwi interacting RNA, or piRNA, is a class of small RNA almost exclusively expressed in the germline where they serve essential roles in retrotransposon silencing. There are two types, primary and secondary piRNA, and the latter is a product of enzymatic cleavage of retrotransposons' transcripts directed by the former. Recently, a new class of 19nt long RNA(More)
Transposable elements (TEs) have been active in the mammalian genome for millions of years and the silencing of these elements in the germline is important for the survival of the host. Mice carrying reporter transgenes can be used to model transcriptional silencing. A mutagenesis screen for modifiers of epigenetic gene silencing produced a line with a(More)
The word 'epimutation' is often used in a manner that can be misinterpreted. The strict definition of epimutation is a heritable change in gene activity that is not associated with a DNA mutation but rather with gain or loss of DNA methylation or other heritable modifications of chromatin. Unfortunately, there is a growing tendency in the cancer field to(More)
We recently identified a novel protein, Rearranged L-myc fusion (Rlf), that is required for DNA hypomethylation and transcriptional activity at two specific regions of the genome known to be sensitive to epigenetic gene silencing. To identify other loci affected by the absence of Rlf, we have now analysed 12 whole genome bisulphite sequencing datasets(More)
We have used a forward genetic screen to identify genes required for transgene silencing in the mouse. Previously these genes were found using candidate-based sequencing, a slow and labor-intensive process. Recently, whole-exome deep sequencing has accelerated our ability to find the causative point mutations, resulting in the discovery of novel and(More)
We previously identified Wiz in a mouse screen for epigenetic modifiers. Due to its known association with G9a/GLP, Wiz is generally considered a transcriptional repressor. Here, we provide evidence that it may also function as a transcriptional activator. Wiz levels are high in the brain, but its function and direct targets are unknown. ChIP-seq was(More)