Harald Loppnow

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Endotoxins of Gram-negative microbes fulfill as components of the outer membrane a vital function for bacterial viability and, if set free, induce in mammalians potent pathophysiological effects. Chemically, they are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) consisting of an O-specific chain, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid component, termed lipid A. The latter(More)
The cells that make up blood vessel walls appear to participate actively in local immune and inflammatory responses, as well as in certain vascular diseases. We tested here whether smooth muscle cells (SMC) can produce the important inflammatory mediator IL6. Unstimulated SMC in vitro elaborated 5 X 10(3) pg recIL6/24h (i.e., biological activity equivalent(More)
OBJECTIVE Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is the sequential failure of several organ systems after a trigger event, like sepsis or cardiogenic shock. Mortality rate is high, up to 70%. Autonomic dysfunction may substantially contribute to the development of MODS. Our study aimed to characterize a) the spectrum of autonomic dysfunction of(More)
During infection or inflammation, cells of the blood vessel wall, such as endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC), contribute to the regulation of the immune response by production of cytokines or expression of adhesion molecules. Little is known about the mechanism(s) involved in the stimulation of vascular cells by endotoxin(More)
During vascular injury, such as observed in atherosclerosis, restenosis, vasculitides, transplantation, or sepsis, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) can be exposed to platelets or platelet products. Under these conditions proliferation or cytokine production of SMC stimulated by platelets or platelet products may contribute to regulation of vascular(More)
Recognition of LPS, one of the most potent prokaryotic stimulators of immune and non-immune cells of higher organisms, appears to be a complex and highly differentiated process. In CD14-positive cells a model involving two major elements for LPS recognition and uptake, i.e. LBP and cellular CD14, is becoming apparent. The involvement of LBP in the(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represents a major virulence factor of Gram-negative bacteria ('endotoxin') that can cause septic shock in mammals including man. The lipid anchor of LPS to the outer membrane, lipid A, has a peculiar chemical structure, harbours the 'endotoxic principle' of LPS and is responsible for the expression of pathophysiological effects.(More)
The multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a key mediator in the cytokine network. The IL-1 family consists of two zymogen isoforms of IL-1 (IL-1alpha and IL-1beta), the IL-1 receptor antagonists, two receptors and receptor-associated proteins. Identification of the enzyme responsible for cleavage and activation of the IL-1beta precursor, the(More)
Myocardial depression in human sepsis was only unequivocally proven in the 1980s by the group of Parrillo, who used nuclear imaging techniques to measure heart volumes and function in intensive care patients. Heart failure in sepsis is frequently masked by a seemingly normal cardiac output. However, relative to the lowered systemic vascular resistance -(More)
Many pathological effects of gram-negative bacteria are produced by their cell wall-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Differing pathogenicity of gram-negative LPSs, however, may depend on their capacities to induce cytokines. Thus, we studied the lethal toxicity of four nonenterobacterial LPSs and compared it with their capacity to induce mononuclear cell(More)