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Evolution of human organismal complexity from a relatively small number of genes--only approximately twice that of worm or fly--is explained mainly by mechanisms generating multiple proteins from a single gene, the most prevalent of which is alternative pre-messenger-RNA splicing. Appropriate spatial and temporal generation of splice variants demands that(More)
The functional relevance and the evolution of two parallel mRNA splicing systems in eukaryotes--a major and minor spliceosome that differ in abundance and splicing rate--are poorly understood. We report here that partially spliced pre-mRNAs containing minor-class introns undergo nuclear export and that minor-class snRNAs are predominantly cytoplasmic in(More)
Alternative splicing of transcripts in a signal-dependent manner has emerged as an important concept to ensure appropriate expression of splice variants under different conditions. Binding of the general splicing factor U2AF to splice sites preceding alternatively spliced exons has been suggested to be an important step for splice site recognition. For(More)
The existence of two sophisticated parallel splicing machineries in multicellular organisms has raised intriguing questions--ranging from their impact on proteome expansion to the evolution of splicing and of metazoan genomes. Exploring roles for the distinct splicing systems in vivo has, however, been restricted by the lack of techniques to selectively(More)
New organisms and biological systems designed to satisfy human needs are among the aims of synthetic genomics and synthetic biology. Synthetic biology seeks to model and construct biological components, functions and organisms that do not exist in nature or to redesign existing biological systems to perform new functions. Synthetic genomics, on the other(More)
In this paper, we propose a new approach to inheritance in the context of algebraic graph transformation by providing a suitable categorial framework which reflects the semantics of class-based inheritance in software engineering. Inheritance is modelled by a type graph T that comes equipped with a partial order. Typed graphs are arrows with codomain T(More)
Categories in which cocones satisfy certain exactness conditions w.r.t. pullbacks are subject to current research activities in theoretical computer science. Usually, exactness is expressed in terms of properties of the pullback functor associated with the cocone. Even in the case of non-exactness, researchers in model semantics and rewriting theory inquire(More)