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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of oral antiretroviral therapy for use as preexposure prophylaxis among HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda. The(More)
B cells are important in the development of autoimmune disorders by mechanisms involving dysregulated polyclonal B-cell activation, production of pathogenic antibodies, and co-stimulation of autoreactive T cells. zTNF4 (BLyS, BAFF, TALL-1, THANK) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family that is a potent co-activator of B cells in vitro(More)
A structural, profile-based algorithm was used to identify interleukin 20 (IL-20), a novel IL-10 homolog. Chromosomal localization of IL-20 led to the discovery of an IL-10 family cytokine cluster. Overexpression of IL-20 in transgenic (TG) mice causes neonatal lethality with skin abnormalities including aberrant epidermal differentiation. Recombinant IL-20(More)
Type III IFNs (IFN-lambda/IL-28/29) are cytokines with type I IFN-like antiviral activities, which remain poorly characterized. We herein show that most cell types expressed both types I and III IFNs after TLR stimulation or virus infection, whereas the ability of cells to respond to IFN-lambda was restricted to a narrow subset of cells, including(More)
T cell-derived cytokines are important in the development of an effective immune response, but when dysregulated they can promote disease. Here we identify a four-helix bundle cytokine we have called interleukin 31 (IL-31), which is preferentially produced by T helper type 2 cells. IL-31 signals through a receptor composed of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin(More)
Regulatory regions of the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene, previously discovered by analysis in cultured muscle cells, were analyzed in transgenic mice. The 206-bp MCK enhancer at nt-1256 was required for high-level expression of MCK-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion genes in skeletal and cardiac muscle; however, unlike its behavior in cell(More)
BLyS and APRIL have similar but distinct biological roles, mediated through two known TNF receptor family members, TACI and BCMA. We show that mice treated with TACI-Ig and TACI-Ig transgenic mice have fewer transitional T2 and mature B cells and reduced levels of circulating immunoglobulin. TACI-Ig treatment inhibits both the production of(More)
Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease with a largely unknown pathogenesis. We demonstrate here that transgenic over-expression of interleukin (IL)-22 in mice resulted in neonatal mortality and psoriasis-like skin alterations including acanthosis and hypogranularity. This cutaneous phenotype may be caused by the direct influence of IL-22 on(More)
Previous analysis of the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene indicated that control elements required for transcription in adult mouse muscle differed from those required in cell culture, suggesting that distinct modes of muscle gene regulation occur in vivo. To examine this further, we measured the activity of MCK transgenes containing E-box and promoter(More)
Members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligand family are known to play important roles in wound healing and fibrotic disease. We show that both transient and stable expression of PDGF-C results in the development of liver fibrosis consisting of the deposition of collagen in a pericellular and perivenular pattern that resembles human alcoholic(More)