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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations. METHODS We conducted a randomized trial of oral antiretroviral therapy for use as preexposure prophylaxis among HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda. The(More)
A structural, profile-based algorithm was used to identify interleukin 20 (IL-20), a novel IL-10 homolog. Chromosomal localization of IL-20 led to the discovery of an IL-10 family cytokine cluster. Overexpression of IL-20 in transgenic (TG) mice causes neonatal lethality with skin abnormalities including aberrant epidermal differentiation. Recombinant IL-20(More)
T cell-derived cytokines are important in the development of an effective immune response, but when dysregulated they can promote disease. Here we identify a four-helix bundle cytokine we have called interleukin 31 (IL-31), which is preferentially produced by T helper type 2 cells. IL-31 signals through a receptor composed of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin(More)
Type III IFNs (IFN-lambda/IL-28/29) are cytokines with type I IFN-like antiviral activities, which remain poorly characterized. We herein show that most cell types expressed both types I and III IFNs after TLR stimulation or virus infection, whereas the ability of cells to respond to IFN-lambda was restricted to a narrow subset of cells, including(More)
Regulatory regions of the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene, previously discovered by analysis in cultured muscle cells, were analyzed in transgenic mice. The 206-bp MCK enhancer at nt-1256 was required for high-level expression of MCK-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion genes in skeletal and cardiac muscle; however, unlike its behavior in cell(More)
B cells are important in the development of autoimmune disorders by mechanisms involving dysregulated polyclonal B-cell activation, production of pathogenic antibodies, and co-stimulation of autoreactive T cells. zTNF4 (BLyS, BAFF, TALL-1, THANK) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family that is a potent co-activator of B cells in vitro(More)
BLyS and APRIL have similar but distinct biological roles, mediated through two known TNF receptor family members, TACI and BCMA. We show that mice treated with TACI-Ig and TACI-Ig transgenic mice have fewer transitional T2 and mature B cells and reduced levels of circulating immunoglobulin. TACI-Ig treatment inhibits both the production of(More)
Psoriasis is a common chronic skin disease with a largely unknown pathogenesis. We demonstrate here that transgenic over-expression of interleukin (IL)-22 in mice resulted in neonatal mortality and psoriasis-like skin alterations including acanthosis and hypogranularity. This cutaneous phenotype may be caused by the direct influence of IL-22 on(More)
Corticotroph-derived glycoprotein hormone (CGH), also referred to as thyrostimulin, is a noncovalent heterodimer of glycoprotein hormone alpha 2 (GPHA2) and glycoprotein hormone beta 5 (GPHB5). Here, we demonstrate that both subunits of CGH are expressed in the corticotroph cells of the human anterior pituitary, as well as in skin, retina, and testis. CGH(More)
Members of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) ligand family are known to play important roles in wound healing and fibrotic disease. We show that both transient and stable expression of PDGF-C results in the development of liver fibrosis consisting of the deposition of collagen in a pericellular and perivenular pattern that resembles human alcoholic(More)