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We present a method for learning nonlinear systems, echo state networks (ESNs). ESNs employ artificial recurrent neural networks in a way that has recently been proposed independently as a learning mechanism in biological brains. The learning method is computationally efficient and easy to use. On a benchmark task of predicting a chaotic time series,(More)
The multiplexing gain of multiple antenna transmission strongly depends on transmit and receive antenna spacing, transmit antenna synchronization, and the algorithm used to eliminate interchannel interference (ICI) at the receiver. In this paper, a new transmission approach, called spatial modulation, that entirely avoids ICI and requires no synchronization(More)
--The fourth generation wireless communication systems have been deployed or are soon to be deployed in many countries. However, with an explosion of wireless mobile devices and services, there are still some challenges that cannot be accommodated even by 4G, such as the spectrum crisis and high energy consumption. Wireless system designers have been facing(More)
In this paper, a novel scheme for data reception in a mobile phone using visible light communications (VLC) is proposed. The camera of the smartphone is used as a receiver in order to capture the continuous changes in state (on-off) of the light, which are invisible to the human eye. The information is captured in the camera in the form of light and dark(More)
In this paper, the performance of generalised spatial modulation (GSM) and spatial modulation (SM) is studied assuming channel estimation errors (CSEs) and correlated Rayleigh and Rician fading channels. A new, simple, accurate and general analytical closed-form upper bound for the average bit error ratio (ABER) performance of both systems is derived. The(More)
In this paper, we compare the performance of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) techniques applied to indoor optical wireless communications (OWC) assuming line-ofsight (LOS) channel conditions. Specifically, several 4× 4 setups with different transmitter spacings and different positions of the receiver array are considered. The following MIMO algorithms(More)
Multiple–antenna techniques constitute a key technology for modern wireless communications, which trade–off superior error performance and higher data rates for increased system complexity and cost. Among the many transmission principles that exploit multiple–antenna at either the transmitter, the receiver, or both, Spatial Modulation (SM) is a novel and(More)