Harald F. Krug

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Today nanosciences are experiencing massive investment worldwide although research on toxicological aspects of these nano-sized particles has just begun and to date, no clear guidelines exist to quantify the effects. In the present study, we focus on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which represent one of the most widely investigated carbon nanoparticles. The(More)
New materials of emerging technological importance are single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Because SWCNTs will be used in commercial products in huge amounts, their effects on human health and the environment have been addressed in several studies. Inhalation studies in vivo and submerse applications in vitro have been described with diverging results.(More)
The close resemblance of carbon nanotubes to asbestos fibers regarding their high aspect ratio, biopersistence and reactivity increases public concerns on the widespread use of these materials. The purpose of this study was not only to address the acute adverse effects of industrially produced multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on human lung and immune(More)
The number of studies that have been published on the topic of nanosafety speaks for itself. We have seen an almost exponential rise over the past 15 years or so in the number of articles on nanotoxicology. Although only a couple of hundred papers had appeared on the topic of "Nanomaterials: environmental and health effects" before 2000, this number has(More)
BACKGROUND Humans have been exposed to fine and ultrafine particles throughout their history. Since the Industrial Revolution, sources, doses, and types of nanoparticles have changed dramatically. In the last decade, the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology has led to an increase of engineered nanoparticles with novel physical and chemical properties.(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are among the most promising novel nanomaterials and their unique chemical and physical properties suggest an enormous potential for many areas of research and applications. As a consequence, the production of CNT-based material and thus the occupational and public exposure to CNTs will increase steadily. Although there is evidence(More)
A growing number of consumer products now contain engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) and questions have been raised about the consequences of these nanoparticles entering the environment at some stage between the production and disposal of such products1,2. Assessing the potential entry, hazard and risk of ENPs to the ecosystem for their safer use and handling(More)
Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in the paint and coating industry as well as in cosmetics, but the knowledge of their possible interactions with the immune system is very limited. Our aims were to investigate if commercially available TiO(2) and ZnO nanoparticles may affect different human immune cells and their production of exosomes, nano-sized(More)
ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) elicit significant adverse effects in various cell types, organisms and in the environment. The toxicity of nanoscale ZnO has often been ascribed to the release of zinc ions from the NPs but it is not yet understood to which extent these ions contribute to ZnO NP toxicity and what are the underlying mechanisms. Here, we take one step(More)