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Surface layers (S-layers) from Bacteria and Archaea are built from protein molecules arrayed in a two-dimensional lattice, forming the outermost cell wall layer in many prokaryotes. In almost half a century of S-layer research a wealth of structural, biochemical, and genetic data have accumulated, but it has not been possible to correlate sequence data with(More)
BACKGROUND Porins provide diffusion channels for salts and small organic molecules in the outer membrane of bacteria. In OmpF from Escherichia coli and related porins, an electrostatic field across the channel and a potential, originating from a surplus of negative charges, create moderate cation selectivity. Here, we investigate the strongly(More)
The hundredfold speedup in glacier motion in a surge of the kind the kind that took place in Variegated Glacier in 1982-1983 is caused by the buildup of high water pressure in the basal passageway system, which is made possible by a fundamental and pervasive change in the geometry and water-transport characteristics of this system. The behavior of the(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the Acetogenium kivui surface layer (S-layer) has been determined to a resolution of 1.7 nm by electron crystallographic techniques. Two independent reconstructions were made from layers negatively stained with uranyl acetate and Na-phosphotungstate. The S-layer has p6 symmetry with a center-to-center spacing of(More)
We present a new method to measure the shear elastic moduli and viscosities of erythrocyte membranes which is based on the fixation and transient deformation of cells in a high-frequency electric field. A frequency domain of constant force (arising by Maxwell Wagner polarization) is selected to minimize dissipative effects. The electric force is thus(More)
The structure of 20 S particles, consisting of NSF, SNAPs, and SNARE complexes, was analyzed by electron microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Structural changes associated with the binding of alpha-SNAP and NSF to SNARE complexes define the contribution of each component to the 20 S particle structure. The synaptic SNARE complex forms a(More)
Cryo-electron tomography in combination with subtomogram averaging allows to investigate the structure of protein assemblies in their natural environment in a close to live state. To make full use of the structural information contained in tomograms it is necessary to analyze the contrast transfer function (CTF) of projections and to restore the phases of(More)
Blue-pigmented exudates arise as droplets on sporulated lawns of Streptomyces coelicolor M110 grown on agar plates. Our electron microscopical and biochemical studies suggest that droplets contain densely packed vesicles with large assemblies of different protein types and/or the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin. Frozen-hydrated vesicles were unilamellar(More)
Proteinaceous, hair-like appendages known as fimbriae or pili commonly extend from the surface of prokaryotic cells and serve important functions such as cell adhesion, biofilm formation, motility and DNA transfer. Here we show that a novel group of archaea from cold, sulphidic springs has developed cell surface appendages of an unexpectedly high complexity(More)
The porin Omp32 is the major outer membrane protein of the bacterium Delftia acidovorans. The crystal structures of the strongly anion-selective porin alone and in complex with the substrate malate were solved at 1.5 and 1.45 A resolution, respectively, and revealed a malate-binding motif adjacent to the channel constriction zone. Binding is mediated by(More)