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Several studies have shown that obesity is associated with changes in human brain function and structure. Since women are more susceptible to obesity than men, it seems plausible that neural correlates may also be different. However, this has not been demonstrated so far. To address this issue, we systematically investigated the brain's white matter (WM)(More)
Emphysema is a pulmonary disease characterized by alveolar wall destruction, resulting in enlargement of gas exchange spaces without fibrosis. This condition is a part of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which causes 3.5% of deaths worldwide [Anonymous (1990) World Health Stat. Q. Special, 1-51] and contributes greatly to the global burden of(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging studies in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) revealed white matter alterations that correlated to most recent blood phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations as well as to brain Phe concentrations measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The clinical significance of these changes is unknown. Magnetic resonance imaging data thus(More)
In order to further clarify the pathogenesis and clinical significance of MRI white matter abnormalities in treated hyperphenylalaninaemia (HPA), ten patients (seven type I HPA, two type II and one type III) underwent T2 relaxometry (n = 8) and/or 1H spectroscopy (n = 7) in addition to conventional MR spin-echo imaging at 1.5 T. Two patients with severe MRI(More)
In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to investigate intracerebral phenylalanine (Phe) concentrations in nine patients with classical phenylketonuria (PKU). The study included serial examinations (n = 31; plasma Phe levels: 0.47-2.24 mmol/l) of patients either receiving a Phe-restricted diet (200 mg Phe per day; four patients) or a diet(More)
ABSTRACT There is international consensus that patients with phenylalanine (Phe) levels <360 microM on a free diet do not need Phe-lowering dietary treatment whereas patients with levels >600 microM do. Clinical outcome of patients showing Phe levels between 360 and 600 microM in serum on a free nutrition has so far only been assessed in a small number of(More)
The transverse relaxation time, T *(2), of hyperpolarized (HP) gas in the lung in vivo is an important parameter for pulse sequence optimization and image contrast. We obtained T *(2) maps of HP (3)He and (129)Xe in guinea pig lungs (n = 17) and in human lungs. Eight different sets of (3)He guinea pig studies were acquired, with variation of slice(More)
In imaging of hyperpolarized noble gases, a knowledge of the diffusion coefficient (D) is important both as a contrast mechanism and in the design of pulse sequences. We have made diffusion coefficient maps of both hyperpolarized (3)He and (129)Xe in guinea pig lungs. Along the length of the trachea, (3)He D values were on average 2.4 cm(2)/sec, closely(More)
In evaluating the sensitivity of arterial spin labeling (CASL) and for quantification of perfusion, knowledge of the transit time from the labeling plane to the imaging slice is crucial. The purpose of the current study was to obtain estimates of transit times relevant under the specific experimental conditions of CASL in human subjects using a separate(More)
PURPOSE MRI methods sensitive to functional changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV) may map neural activity with better spatial specificity than standard functional MRI (fMRI) methods based on blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) effect. The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate a vascular space occupancy (VASO) method with high sensitivity to(More)