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The Age of Genomics dawned only gradually for bacteriophages. It was 1977 when the genome of phage phi X174 was published and 1983 when the "large" genome of phage lambda hit the streets. More recently, the pace has quickened, so that we now have over 100 complete phage genomes and can expect thousands in a very few years. These sequences have been(More)
Lactobacillus johnsonii strains NCC533 and ATCC 33200 (the type strain of this species) differed significantly in gut residence time (12 versus 5 days) after oral feeding to mice. Genes affecting the long gut residence time of the probiotic strain NCC533 were targeted for analysis. We hypothesized that genes specific for this strain, which are expressed(More)
Darwin provided a great unifying theory for biology; its visual expression is the universal tree of life. The tree concept is challenged by the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer and-as summarized in this review -- by the omission of viruses. Microbial ecologists have demonstrated that viruses are the most numerous biological entities on earth,(More)
UNLABELLED We found that the relatively simple microbiota of young infants shifts predictably to a more mature anaerobic microbiota during infancy and the dynamics of this shift are influenced by environmental factors. In this longitudinal study of 75 infants, we demonstrate high interindividual variability within the normal range of birth outcomes,(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have shown that selected strains of lactobacilli that are administered orally result in a modest reduction of diarrhea duration. However, duration alone is not considered optimal for therapeutic evaluation of any agent in diarrhea. OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of a new probiotic, Lactobacillus paracasei strain ST11 (ST11),(More)
The first comprehensive comparative analysis of lactobacilli was done by comparing the genomes of Lactobacillus plantarum (3.3 Mb) and Lactobacillus johnsonii (2.0 Mb). L. johnsonii is predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract, while L. plantarum is also found on plants and plant-derived material, and is used in a variety of industrial(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotic resistance is rising in important bacterial pathogens. Phage therapy (PT), the use of bacterial viruses infecting the pathogen in a species-specific way, is a potential alternative. METHOD T4-like coliphages or a commercial Russian coliphage product or placebo was orally given over 4 days to Bangladeshi children hospitalized with(More)
The gut of the human neonate is colonized rapidly after birth from an early sparse and highly distinct microbiota to a more adult-like and convergent state, within 1 to 3 years. The progression of colonizing bacterial species is non-random. During the first months of life several shifts commonly occur in the species prevalent in our guts. Although the(More)
Two independent isolates of the gut commensal Lactobacillus johnsonii were sequenced. These isolates belonged to the same clonal lineage and differed mainly by a 40.8-kb prophage, LJ771, belonging to the Sfi11 phage lineage. LJ771 shares close DNA sequence identity with Lactobacillus gasseri prophages. LJ771 coexists as an integrated prophage and excised(More)
BACKGROUND Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus(More)