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Comparative genomics demonstrated that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving. This process is most evident for bacterial pathogens where the majority contain prophages or phage remnants integrated into the bacterial DNA. Many prophages from bacterial pathogens encode virulence factors. Two situations can be(More)
Fifteen healthy adult volunteers received in their drinking water a lower Escherichia coli phage T4 dose (10(3) PFU/ml), a higher phage dose (10(5) PFU/ml), and placebo. Fecal coliphage was detected in a dose-dependent way in volunteers orally exposed to phage. All volunteers receiving the higher phage dose showed fecal phage 1 day after exposure; this(More)
There are common themes among bacteriophage-encoded virulence factors, which include the well-characterized bacterial toxins and proteins that alter antigenicity as well as several new classes of bacteriophage-encoded proteins such as superantigens, effectors translocated by a type III secretion system, and proteins required for intracellular survival and(More)
Comparative phage genomics can retrace part of the evolutionary history of phage modules encoding phage-specific functions such as capsid building or establishment of the lysogenic state. The diagnosis of relatedness is not based exclusively on sequence similarity, but includes topological considerations of genome organization. The gene maps from the(More)
The current status of phage therapy approaches is reviewed and possible hurdles to a practical medical application of bacteriophages in Western countries are identified as discussed at a recent EMBO meeting on "Viruses of Microbes" in Brussels. In view of the growing antibiotic resistance crisis, a coordinated effort by the public health sector is needed to(More)
Four T4-like coliphages with broad host ranges for diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli serotypes were isolated from stool specimens from pediatric diarrhea patients and from environmental water samples. All four phages showed a highly efficient gastrointestinal passage in adult mice when added to drinking water. Viable phages were recovered from the feces(More)
The temperate Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage phi SFi21 showed an 38-kb-long double-stranded DNA genome with cohesive ends. A single integration site was used in lysogens established in three different S. thermophilus strains. The attP and attB sites were localized on the restriction map of phage DNA and by hybridization on pulsed field separated(More)
Numerous T4-like Escherichia coli phages were isolated from human stool and environmental wastewater samples in Bangladesh and Switzerland. The sequences of the major head gene (g23) revealed that these coliphages could be placed into four subgroups, represented by the phages T4, RB69, RB49, and JS98. Thus, JS98 defines a new major subgroup of E. coli(More)
The majority of the bacterial genome sequences deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database contain prophage sequences. Analysis of the prophages suggested that after being integrated into bacterial genomes, they undergo a complex decay process consisting of inactivating point mutations, genome rearrangements, modular exchanges,(More)
The Age of Genomics dawned only gradually for bacteriophages. It was 1977 when the genome of phage phi X174 was published and 1983 when the "large" genome of phage lambda hit the streets. More recently, the pace has quickened, so that we now have over 100 complete phage genomes and can expect thousands in a very few years. These sequences have been(More)