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Since it emerged in Japan in the 1870s, Japanese encephalitis has spread across Asia and has become the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide. Four genotypes of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are presently recognized (representatives of genotypes I to III have been fully sequenced), but its origin is not known. We have determined the(More)
To identify the molecular determinants for attenuation of wild-type Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus strain SA14, the RNA genome of wild-type strain SA14 and its attenuated vaccine virus SA14-2-8 were reverse transcribed, amplified by PCR and sequenced. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of SA14-2-8 vaccine virus with virulent parent SA14 virus and with(More)
Strain variation among Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus isolates has been previously demonstrated by many workers using different methods. We report the nucleotide sequence of the 5' non-coding region and the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of structural protein genes for eight wild-type JE virus strain isolated from different Asian countries(More)
To study retroviral gene transfer to airway epithelia, we used a transient transfection technique to generate high titers (approximately 10(9) infectious units/ml after concentration) of murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-derived vectors pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G). Transformed (CFT1) and primary airway epithelial(More)
Due to the lack of a rapid, simple, and inexpensive assay for detecting alphavirus infections, we combined a reverse transcription-PCR with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) to identify human pathogenic alphaviruses that are endemic in the New World. By combining the sensitivity of PCR, the detection simplicity of ELISA, and the(More)
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