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Since it emerged in Japan in the 1870s, Japanese encephalitis has spread across Asia and has become the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis worldwide. Four genotypes of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are presently recognized (representatives of genotypes I to III have been fully sequenced), but its origin is not known. We have determined the(More)
To identify the molecular determinants for attenuation of wild-type Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus strain SA14, the RNA genome of wild-type strain SA14 and its attenuated vaccine virus SA14-2-8 were reverse transcribed, amplified by PCR and sequenced. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of SA14-2-8 vaccine virus with virulent parent SA14 virus and with(More)
Serological assays for diagnosis of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) currently require bio-safety level 3 facilities and select agent certification to produce antigens, reference sera, or viral stocks. Rapid identification of VEEV infection is required to respond to human and equine outbreaks of encephalitis caused by that virus and can be useful(More)
The genus Alphavirus contains members that threaten human health, both as natural pathogens and as potential biological weapons. Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) enter cells readily and can inhibit viral replication through sequence-specific steric blockade of viral RNA. Sindbis virus (SINV) has low pathogenicity in humans(More)
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important, naturally emerging zoonotic pathogen. Recent outbreaks in Venezuela and Colombia in 1995, involving an estimated 100,000 human cases, indicate that VEEV still poses a serious public health threat. To develop a safe, efficient vaccine that protects against disease resulting from VEEV infection, we(More)
Strain variation among Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus isolates has been previously demonstrated by many workers using different methods. We report the nucleotide sequence of the 5' non-coding region and the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of structural protein genes for eight wild-type JE virus strain isolated from different Asian countries(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus strain P3 was highly neurovirulent and neuroinvasive in weanling mice whereas two other JE virus strains, SA14/USA and S892, were only neurovirulent. Infectivity titrations of brains and sera showed that P3 virus multiplied faster and reached a higher infectivity titre than S892 virus following inoculation of viruses by the(More)
Of four wild-type strains (Nakayama-original, SA14, 826309 and Beijing-1) of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus that were passaged six times in HeLa cells (HeLa p6), two (Nakayama-original and 826309) became attenuated for mice. In the case of strain Nakayama-original, the virulence for mice was markedly reduced and attenuation was retained on passage in(More)
Six variants of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus strain P3 were selected for resistance to binding to mouse brain membrane receptor preparations (MRP). All but one of these MRP escape (MRPR) variants were significantly attenuated in mice for both neuroinvasiveness (>200-fold) and neurovirulence (>500-fold) compared to their parent virus. Attenuated mouse(More)
Binding of yellow fever virus wild-type strains Asibi and French viscerotropic virus and vaccine strains 17D and FNV to monkey brain and monkey liver cell membrane receptor preparations (MRPs) was investigated. Only FNV bound to monkey brain MRPs, while French viscerotropic virus, Asibi, and FNV all bound to monkey liver MRPs. Four monkey brain and two(More)