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Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a recently discovered metabolic regulator. Exogenous FGF21 produces beneficial metabolic effects in animal models; however, the translation of these observations to humans has not been tested. Here, we studied the effects of LY2405319 (LY), a variant of FGF21, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind(More)
A noninferiority study is often used to investigate whether a treatment's efficacy or safety profile is acceptable compared with an alternative therapy regarding the time to a clinical event. The empirical quantification of the treatment difference for such a study is routinely based on the hazard ratio (HR) estimate. The HR, which is not a relative risk,(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent guidelines recommend use of aspirin and either clopidogrel or prasugrel for at least 12 months following use of drug-eluting or bare metal stents in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study evaluated factors associated with clopidogrel use and adherence in ACS patients(More)
Network meta-analysis (NMA) expands the scope of a conventional pairwise meta-analysis to simultaneously handle multiple treatment comparisons. However, some trials may appear to deviate markedly from the others and thus be inappropriate to be synthesized in the NMA. In addition, the inclusion of these trials in evidence synthesis may lead to bias in(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes pathophysiology is characterized by dysregulated glucagon secretion. LY2409021, a potent, selective small-molecule glucagon receptor antagonist that lowers glucose was evaluated for efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The efficacy (HbA1c and glucose) and safety (serum(More)
The Drug Information Association Bayesian Scientific Working Group (BSWG) was formed in 2011 with a vision to ensure that Bayesian methods are well understood and broadly utilized for design and analysis and throughout the medical product development process, and to improve industrial, regulatory, and economic decision making. The group, composed of(More)
Availability of individual patient-level data (IPD) broadens the scope of network meta-analysis (NMA) and enables us to incorporate patient-level information. Although IPD is a potential gold mine in biomedical areas, methodological development has been slow owing to limited access to such data. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian IPD NMA modeling(More)
Meta-analysis has become an acceptable and powerful tool for pooling quantitative results from multiple studies addressing the same question. It estimates the effect difference between two treatments when they have been compared head-to-head. However, limitations occur when there are more than two treatments of interest, and some of them have not been(More)
Drug delivery devices are required to have excellent technical specifications to deliver drugs accurately, and in addition, the devices should provide a satisfactory experience to patients because this can have a direct effect on drug compliance. To compare patients' experience with two devices, cross-over studies with patient-reported outcomes (PRO) as(More)