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Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a recently discovered metabolic regulator. Exogenous FGF21 produces beneficial metabolic effects in animal models; however, the translation of these observations to humans has not been tested. Here, we studied the effects of LY2405319 (LY), a variant of FGF21, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind(More)
Meta-analysis has become an acceptable and powerful tool for pooling quantitative results from multiple studies addressing the same question. It estimates the effect difference between two treatments when they have been compared head-to-head. However, limitations occur when there are more than two treatments of interest, and some of them have not been(More)
Availability of individual patient-level data (IPD) broadens the scope of network meta-analysis (NMA) and enables us to incorporate patient-level information. Although IPD is a potential gold mine in biomedical areas, methodological development has been slow owing to limited access to such data. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian IPD NMA modeling(More)
OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes pathophysiology is characterized by dysregulated glucagon secretion. LY2409021, a potent, selective small-molecule glucagon receptor antagonist that lowers glucose was evaluated for efficacy and safety in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The efficacy (HbA1c and glucose) and safety (serum(More)
In recent years, Bayesian response-adaptive designs have been used to improve the efficiency of learning in dose-finding studies. Many current methods for analyzing the data at the time of the interim analysis only use the data from patients who have completed the study. Therefore, data collected at intermediate time points are not used for decision making(More)
A noninferiority study is often used to investigate whether a treatment's efficacy or safety profile is acceptable compared with an alternative therapy regarding the time to a clinical event. The empirical quantification of the treatment difference for such a study is routinely based on the hazard ratio (HR) estimate. The HR, which is not a relative risk,(More)
BACKGROUND Smaller gauge, shorter needles have been shown to be as safe and effective for insulin delivery as longer needles in many patients. However, in obese patients with diabetes, results have been inconsistent with regard to the impact of needle length on leakage of injectate. METHODS A single-blind, randomized, two-period, crossover study compared(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent guidelines recommend use of aspirin and either clopidogrel or prasugrel for at least 12 months following use of drug-eluting or bare metal stents in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study evaluated factors associated with clopidogrel use and adherence in ACS patients(More)