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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe behavioral disorder in children known to have a substantial genetic component. Prior studies have implicated serotonin genes in the etiology of ADHD but have not examined tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin biosynthesis. The current study examined the(More)
Most previous neuroimaging studies of age-related brain structural changes in older individuals have been cross-sectional and/or restricted to clinical samples. The present study of 345 community-dwelling non-demented individuals aged 70-90years aimed to examine age-related brain volumetric changes over two years. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging(More)
ADHD is generally deemed to be a highly heritable disorder with mean heritability of 0.75. The enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO), which has both A and B types, has long been considered a candidate pathological substrate for ADHD, and more recently, the genes for both MAO enzymes have been examined as mediators of the illness. Previous studies indicated that(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Tenuigenin (Ten) is a Chinese herbal extract with antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects on toxin-induced cell models of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, its effects on α-synuclein toxicity-based PD models remain unknown. α-synuclein hyperphosphorylation is a key event in PD pathogenesis and potential target of therapeutic(More)
Hypoxia can promote proliferation of neural progenitor cells in vitro and in vivo, however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Calcium ions are important for the proliferation of progenitor cells. In this study, we reported that Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels mediated hypoxia-promoted(More)
Serotonin is an endogenous neurotransmitter that regulates aggressive and impulsive behavior and may be involved in the development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 5-HT1B knockout mice display hyperactivity, increased exploratory activity and aggression, reduced anxiety, increased vulnerability to cocaine self-administration, and(More)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous neurocognitive disorder that can be classified into various subtypes. The present study aims to examine the gray matter (GM) atrophy patterns of MCI subtypes in comparison with a cognitively healthy group. Participants, including 135 MCI subjects and 120 cognitively healthy controls, were drawn from the(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex psychiatric syndrome with cardinal symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, and is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes in both adolescence and adulthood. Etiology is clearly multifactoral, with probable contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. The(More)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable disease. Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters involved in the etiology of ADHD. Serotonin-1D receptors are autoreceptors which can regulate the release of serotonin in brain, so the HTR1D gene may be predisposing. The current study genotyped two variants of HTR1D gene in 272 ADHD trios of(More)
BACKGROUND/AIM While a number of studies examined the neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive function in older adults, the results have been inconsistent. Examination of a large epidemiologically acquired sample with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has the potential to enhance the evidence in this field. METHODS The participants were 326(More)