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The ATP-dependent drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a significant role in the absorption and disposition of many compounds. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible interaction of P-gp with each of four major marijuana constituents: Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid(More)
Carboxylesterase (CES) 1 and CES2 are two major hepatic hydrolases responsible for the metabolism of numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. In this study, age- and sex-dependent expression and activity of CES1 and CES2 were investigated using both animal models and individual human liver s9 samples. The expression and activity of mouse CES1 (mCES1)(More)
The human carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) gene encodes for the enzyme carboxylesterase 1, a serine esterase governing both metabolic deactivation and activation of numerous therapeutic agents. During the course of a study of the pharmacokinetics of the methyl ester racemic psychostimulant methylphenidate, profoundly elevated methylphenidate plasma concentrations,(More)
Berberine (BBR), a hypoglycemic agent, has shown beneficial metabolic effects for anti-diabetes, but its precise mechanism was unclear. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is considered to be an important incretin that can decrease hyperglycemia in the gastrointestinal tract after meals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BBR exerts its(More)
Ethylphenidate is formed by metabolic transesterification of methylphenidate and ethanol. Study objectives were to (a) establish that ethylphenidate is formed in C57BL/6 (B6) mice; (b) compare the stimulatory effects of ethylphenidate and methylphenidate enantiomers; (c) determine methylphenidate and ethylphenidate plasma and brain distribution and (d)(More)
Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the metabolism of numerous therapeutic agents as well as endogenous substrates. CES1 and CES2 differ distinctly in their substrate specificity and tissue distribution. In this study, we investigated the role of CES1 and CES2 in converting the(More)
The ABCG2 transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) has been identified in several physiological sites. It has been suggested to play an important role in disposition of many drugs and environmental toxins. We investigated the effects of several antipsychotic drugs, including risperidone, 9-hydroxy-risperidone (paliperidone), olanzapine,(More)
Clopidogrel pharmacotherapy is associated with substantial interindividual variability in clinical response, which can translate into an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Clopidogrel, a recognized substrate of hepatic carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), undergoes extensive hydrolytic metabolism in the liver. Significant interindividual variability in the(More)
Sacubitril was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in combination with valsartan for the treatment of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. As a prodrug, sacubitril must be metabolized (hydrolyzed) to its active metabolite sacubitrilat (LBQ657) to exert its intended therapeutic effects. Thus, understanding the(More)
Oseltamivir phosphate is an ethyl ester prodrug widely used in the treatment and prevention of both Influenzavirus A and B infections. The conversion of oseltamivir to its active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate is dependent on ester hydrolysis mediated by carboxylesterase 1 (CES1). We recently identified two functional CES1 variants p.Gly143Glu and(More)