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NG2-expressing cells (NG2 cells or polydendrocytes) generate oligodendrocytes throughout the CNS and a subpopulation of protoplasmic astrocytes in the gray matter of the ventral forebrain. The mechanisms that regulate their oligodendrocyte or astrocyte fate and the degree to which they exhibit lineage plasticity in vivo have remained unclear. The basic(More)
Polydendrocytes (NG2 cells) are a distinct type of glia that populate the developing and adult central nervous systems (CNS). In the adult CNS, they retain mitotic activity and represent the largest proliferating cell population. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms regulate the fate of polydendrocytes, which give rise to both oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.(More)
Human calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that maintains extracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis through the regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion. It functions as a disulfide-tethered homodimer composed of three main domains, the Venus Flytrap module, cysteine-rich domain, and seven-helix transmembrane region. Here, we(More)
Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells essential for skeletal remodeling. However, over-active osteoclasts can cause bone-degenerative disorders. Therefore, the level of NFATc1, the master transcription factor of osteoclast, must be tightly controlled. Although the activation and amplification of NFATc1 have been extensively studied, how NFATc1 signaling is(More)
Macrophages are prominent immune cells in the tumor microenvironment that exert potent effects on cancer metastasis. However, the signals and receivers for the tumor-macrophage communication remain enigmatic. Here, we show that G protein-coupled receptor 132 (Gpr132) functions as a key macrophage sensor of the rising lactate in the acidic tumor milieu to(More)
Gata2 is a zinc finger transcription factor that is important in hematopoiesis and neuronal development. However, the roles of Gata2 in the mesenchymal lineages are poorly understood. In vitro studies suggest that Gata2 modulates adipocyte differentiation and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation. To systematically determine the in vivo functions of(More)
Oxidation of ammonia to nitrite rather than nitrate is critical for nitritation process for wastewater treatment. We proposed a promising approach by using controlled ultrasonic treatment to enhance the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and suppress that of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Batch activity assays indicated that when ultrasound was(More)
Breast cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Early detection would save many lives, but current fluorescence imaging probes are limited in their detection ability, particularly of bone and liver micrometastases. Herein, probes that are capable of imaging tiny (<1 mm) micrometastases in the liver, lung, pancreas, kidneys,(More)
13 Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells essential for skeletal remodeling. However, over-active 14 osteoclasts can cause bone degenerative disorders. Therefore, the level of NFATc1, the master 15 transcription factor of osteoclast, must be tightly controlled. Although the activation and 16 amplification of NFATc1 have been extensively studied, how NFATc1(More)
Nuclear receptors are a family of transcription factors that can be activated by lipophilic ligands. They are fundamental regulators of development, reproduction, and energy metabolism. In bone, nuclear receptors enable bone cells, including osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, to sense their dynamic microenvironment and maintain normal bone(More)
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