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Increasing evidence shows that hearing loss is a risk factor for tinnitus and hyperacusis. Although both often coincide, a causal relationship between tinnitus and hyperacusis has not been shown. Currently, tinnitus and hyperacusis are assumed to be caused by elevated responsiveness in subcortical circuits. We examined both the impact of different degrees(More)
Tinnitus is proposed to be caused by decreased central input from the cochlea, followed by increased spontaneous and evoked subcortical activity that is interpreted as compensation for increased responsiveness of central auditory circuits. We compared equally noise exposed rats separated into groups with and without tinnitus for differences in brain(More)
Although Ca(V)1.3 channels are known to be essential for neuronal excitation and signal transduction in the auditory system, their expression patterns in the cochlea are still not fully understood, particularly in the regions where non-sensory cells are located. We performed immunohistochemistry, western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain(More)
Hepatic disposition of 5 (and 6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (CDF) and its diacetate promoiety (CDFDA) was studied in isolated perfused rat livers. Livers from Wistar wild-type and multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp)2-deficient (TR(-)) rats were perfused with CDF in the presence or absence of probenecid. Probenecid decreased the recovery of(More)
In this paper, we present our system description in task of Cross-lingual Textual Entail-ment. The goal of this task is to detect entailment relations between two sentences written in different languages. To accomplish this goal, we first translate sentences written in foreign languages into English. Then, we use EDITS 1 , an open source package, to(More)
With the goal of ensuring availability of security services such as encryption and authentication, we initiate the study of leakage-resilient threshold cryptography, for achieving formal security guarantee under various key-exposure attacks. A distinctive property of threshold cryptosystems is that a threshold number of secret keys are used in the main(More)
In certificateless public key encryption (CL-PKE), the Private Key Generator (PKG) keeps a master secret key to generate a partial private key corresponding to a user's identity. Together with a secret value generated by the user, a full private key can be constructed for decryption. Traditional security model for CL-PKE assumes that (i) both the master(More)
Hair cells of the mammalian cochlea are specialized for the dynamic coding of sound stimuli. The transduction of sound waves into electrical signals depends upon mechanosensitive hair bundles that project from the cell's apical surface. Each stereocilium within a hair bundle is composed of uniformly polarized and tightly packed actin filaments. Several(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the auditory function and the role of NKCC1 and alpha2 Na, K-ATPase in the potassium recycling of cochlea. METHODS NKCC1(+/-) / alpha2 Na, K-ATPase(+/-) mice model was established from NKCC1(+/-) and alpha2 Na, K-ATPase(+/-) mice. The auditory function of all strain mice were detected by auditory brainstem response (ABR) and(More)