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In conjunction with histone modifications, DNA methylation plays critical roles in gene silencing through chromatin remodeling. Changes in DNA methylation perturb neuronal function, and mutations in a methyl-CpG-binding protein, MeCP2, are associated with Rett syndrome. We report that increased synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in(More)
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and nucleus-controlled fertility restoration are widespread plant reproductive features that provide useful tools to exploit heterosis in crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this kind of cytoplasmic-nuclear interaction remains unclear. Here, we show in rice (Oryza sativa) with Boro II cytoplasm that an(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of beta-amyloid (Abeta)-induced neuronal toxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we demonstrate that Abeta-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) is a direct molecular link from Abeta to mitochondrial toxicity. Abeta interacts with ABAD in the mitochondria of AD patients and transgenic mice. The crystal structure of(More)
Epigenetic modification of the mammalian genome by DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine) has a profound impact on chromatin structure, gene expression and maintenance of cellular identity. The recent demonstration that members of the Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family of proteins can convert 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine raised the possibility(More)
DNA methylation at proximal promoters facilitates lineage restriction by silencing cell type-specific genes. However, euchromatic DNA methylation frequently occurs in regions outside promoters. The functions of such nonproximal promoter DNA methylation are unclear. Here we show that the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a is expressed in postnatal neural(More)
Extinction of conditioned fear is an important model both of inhibitory learning and of behavior therapy for human anxiety disorders. Like other forms of learning, extinction learning is long-lasting and depends on regulated gene expression. Epigenetic mechanisms make an important contribution to persistent changes in gene expression; therefore, in these(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the Ten-eleven translocation (Tet) family proteins can enzymatically convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). While 5mC has been studied extensively, little is known about the distribution and function of 5hmC. Here we present a genome-wide profile of 5hmC in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. A(More)
The postnatal forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) harbors stem cells that give rise to olfactory bulb interneurons throughout life. The identity of stem cells in the adult SVZ has been extensively debated. Although, ependymal cells were once suggested to have stem cell characteristics, subsequent studies have challenged the initial report and postulated(More)
Plant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) results from incompatibilities between the organellar and nuclear genomes and prevents self pollination, enabling hybrid crop breeding to increase yields. The Wild Abortive CMS (CMS-WA) has been exploited in the majority of 'three-line' hybrid rice production since the 1970s, but the molecular basis of this trait(More)
Sterility is common in hybrids between divergent populations, such as the indica and japonica subspecies of Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Although multiple loci for plant hybrid sterility have been identified, it remains unknown how alleles of the loci interact at the molecular level. Here we show that a locus for indica-japonica hybrid male(More)