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The electricity of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks is very limited, so it is an important research topic to deploy the sensor nodes and cooperate with an efficient routing algorithm for extending the network lifetime. In the related research, LEACH routing algorithm randomly selects cluster heads in each round to form a cluster network, which may(More)
In recent years, the applications of wireless sensor networks have increased steadily. Sensor nodes are often scattered outdoors and their energy consumption depends heavily on the area of coverage and network topology. Many studies were focused on saving the energy of sensor nodes to maintain their functionality. This work aims at extending the lifetime of(More)
Drilling tools currently used in surgery depends only on the surgeon’s manual skills to stop the penetration when completing a hole. This paper presents a modular mechatronic system for automatic bone drilling in surgery. The development of a “modular system” that is compatible with motor-driven drills that are commercially available, rather than developing(More)
Hybrid scrambling technique is proposed for NROM-based ROMs in order to enhance the fabrication yield and reliability. Besides the traditional hardware redundancy techniques, fault masking features are also exploited to further improve the fabrication yield and reduce the amount of extra spare rows/columns. The hybrid scrambling technique basically consists(More)
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