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We use credit default swaps (CDS) trading data to demonstrate that the credit risk of reference firms, reflected in rating downgrades and bankruptcies, increases significantly upon the inception of CDS trading, a finding that is robust after controlling for the endogeneity of CDS trading. Additionally, distressed firms are more likely to file for bankruptcy(More)
Repeated treatment of psychotropic drugs produces changes in brain and behavior that far outlast their initial neuropharmacological effects. The nature of persistent drug-induced neural plasticity is of interest because it is thought to contribute to the development of drug dependency and addiction. To determine if chronic morphine treatment alters the(More)
Functional degradation of mammalian visual cortex is associated with aging. It has been hypothesized that much of the decline might be mediated by a degradation of cortical inhibitory system during senescence. In the present work, we compared the properties of adaptation, onset latency and signal-to-noise ratio in primary visual cortex of young and old rats(More)
The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter isoform1 (NKCC1) is present in many animal cells where it plays prominent roles in regulating cell volume and maintaining intracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) above electrochemical equilibrium. We show here that NKCC1 is present and active in cultured oligodendrocytes. Expression of NKCC1 in the rat spinal cord increased(More)
beta-Amyloid peptide (Abeta), the major pathological factor in Alzheimer's disease, has recently been reported to be implicated in the development of glaucoma. In this study, we explored the effect of muscarinic activation on abnormal processing of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) induced by a risk factor hypoxia in retinal ganglion cells. Hypoxia(More)
Barnacles are major sessile components of the intertidal areas worldwide, and also one of the most dominant fouling organisms in fouling communities. Larval settlement has a crucial ecological effect not only on the distribution of the barnacle population but also intertidal community structures. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the transition(More)
The problem of efficiently maintaining a large number (say millions) of statistics counters that need to be updated at very high speeds (e.g., 40 Gb/s) has received considerable research attention in recent years. This problem arises in a variety of router management and data streaming applications where large arrays of counters are used to track various(More)
Chronic morphine exposure can induce addiction and affect synaptic plasticity, but the underlying neuronal mechanisms remain unknown. Two forms of short-term synaptic depression (paired-pulse depression (PPD) and frequency depression) were investigated in vivo in the geniculo-cortical visual pathway of morphine-treated and saline-treated (as control) adult(More)
Granuphilin, an effector of the small GTPase Rab27a, mediates the stable attachment (docking) of insulin granules to the plasma membrane and inhibits subsequent fusion of docked granules, possibly through interaction with a fusion-inhibitory Munc18-1/syntaxin complex. However, phenotypes of insulin exocytosis differ considerably between Rab27a- and(More)
The retina is the most metabolically active tissue in the human body and hypoxia-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death has been implicated in glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study is to determine whether muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine, a classic antiglaucoma drug, possesses neuroprotection against cobalt chloride(More)