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alpha-Synuclein, a gene whose mutations, duplication, and triplication has been linked to autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (fPD), appears to play a central role in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD (sPD) as well. Enhancement of neurodegeneration induced by mutant alpha-synuclein has been attributed to date largely to faster formation of(More)
The role of dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) polymorphisms in schizophrenia remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to determine whether DRD2 polymorphisms influence the risk of schizophrenia and examined the relationship between rs1799732, rs1801028, and rs1800rs028 an23381d rs1800497 genetic variants and the etiology of schizophrenia. Relevant(More)
The relation between the LRRK2 mutation and its effect on Parkinson's disease (PD) has always caught a lot attention. Recent studies found that the G2385R polymorphism of LRRK2 may increase the risk of PD in Asian populations. Here we tried to clarify the relationship between the LRRK2 G2385R variant and the clinical profiles including motor complication in(More)
Neuronal death is known to trigger reactive microgliosis. However, little is known regarding the manner by which microglia are activated by injured neurons and how microgliosis participates in neurodegeneration. In this study we delineate the critical role of macrophage Ag complex-1 (MAC1), a member of the beta(2) integrin family, in mediating reactive(More)
Microglial activation is implicated in the progressive nature of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. Using primary rat mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we found that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) 38, PACAP27, and its internal peptide, Gly-Ile-Phe (GIF; PACAP4-6), are neuroprotective at 10(-13)(More)
We investigated the neuroprotective property of analogs of dextromethorphan (DM) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models to identify neuroprotective drugs for Parkinson's disease (PD). In vivo studies showed that daily injections with DM analogs protected dopamine (DA) neurons in substantia nigra pars(More)
OBJECTIVE Dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission at the D1 receptor in the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Genetic polymorphisms of the dopamine D1-receptor gene have a plausible role in modulating the risk of schizophrenia. To determine the role of DRD1 genetic polymorphisms as a risk factor for(More)
The hypothesis for the etiology of schizophrenia involves various neurotransmitters, including 5-HT. Metabolic disorder of 5-HT is an important underlying neurobiochemical cause leading to the development of mental illness. Abnormality in the receptors involved in 5-HT synthesis and metabolism may affect the functioning of 5-HT in the central nervous(More)
Cytochomosome P450 enzymes (CYP) are heme-containing monooxygenases responsible for oxidative metabolism of many exogenous and endogenous compounds including drugs. The species difference of CYP limits the extent to which data obtained from animals can be translated to humans in pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics studies. Transgenic expression of human(More)