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A metagenomic cosmid library was prepared in Escherichia coli from DNA extracted from the contents of rabbit cecum and screened for cellulase activities. Eleven independent clones expressing cellulase activities (four endo-β-1,4-glucanases and seven β-glucosidases) were isolated. Subcloning and sequencing analysis of these clones identified 11 cellulase(More)
The human secretor type α(1,2)fucosyltrans-ferase gene (FUT2) polymorphism was investigated in Xhosa and Caucasian populations of South Africa by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing. Six new base substitutions were found in the coding region of FUT2. A single base (C) deletion at nucleotide 778, which led to(More)
Five novel missense mutations, viz., C304 A, T370 G, G484 A, G667 A, and G808 A, in the Lewis gene (FUT3) were detected in African (Xhosa) and Caucasian individuals in South Africa. These single base substitutions may result in changes in amino acid residues from Gln102 to Lys in the 304 mutation, Ser124 to Ala in the 370 mutation, Asp162 to Asn in the 484(More)
alpha-Synuclein, a gene whose mutations, duplication, and triplication has been linked to autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (fPD), appears to play a central role in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD (sPD) as well. Enhancement of neurodegeneration induced by mutant alpha-synuclein has been attributed to date largely to faster formation of(More)
Metagenomics, a new research field developed over the past decade, aims to identify potential enzymes from nonculturable microbes. In this study, genes encoding three glycoside hydrolase family (GHF) 9 endoglucanases and one GHF 5 endoglucanase were cloned and identified from the metagenome of the compost soils. The shared identities between the predicted(More)
We have investigated the allelic polymorphism of the human ABO-secretor locus (FUT2) in 90 unrelated Papuan-speaking New Guineans (Dani group), 101 admixed New Guineans from Irian Jaya, Indonesia, and 32 New Guineans from Papua New Guinea by DNA sequencing analysis. Whereas the total frequency of various nonfunctional alleles at the FUT2 locus in the(More)
The role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in Parkinson's disease is not completely understood. In this study, using mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures, we report that both pretreatment and post-treatment of rat mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures with interleukin (IL)-10, a natural immune modulator, reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced DA neurotoxicity.(More)
Neuronal death is known to trigger reactive microgliosis. However, little is known regarding the manner by which microglia are activated by injured neurons and how microgliosis participates in neurodegeneration. In this study we delineate the critical role of macrophage Ag complex-1 (MAC1), a member of the beta(2) integrin family, in mediating reactive(More)
Most invertases identified to date have optimal activity at acidic pH, and are intolerant to neutral or alkaline environments. Here, an acid invertase named uninv2 is described. Uninv2 contained 586 amino acids, with a 100 amino acids N-terminal domain, a catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain. With sucrose as the substrate, uninv2 activity was optimal at(More)
The relation between the LRRK2 mutation and its effect on Parkinson’s disease (PD) has always caught a lot attention. Recent studies found that the G2385R polymorphism of LRRK2 may increase the risk of PD in Asian populations. Here we tried to clarify the relationship between the LRRK2 G2385R variant and the clinical profiles including motor complication in(More)