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Reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs) have attracted widespread interest for emerging techniques including repeated tracking of protein behavior and superresolution microscopy. Among the limited number of RSFPs available, only Dronpa is widely employed for most cell biology applications due to its monomeric and other favorable photochemical(More)
beta-Catenin, as an important effector of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and as a regulator of cell adhesion, has been demonstrated to be involved in multiple developmental processes and tumorigenesis. beta-Catenin expression was found mainly on the Sertoli cell membrane starting from embryonic day 15.5 in the developing testes. However, its potential(More)
Sox9 is an Sry-box-containing gene that encodes a transcriptional activator. During mouse gonadogenesis, Sox9 is detected in the male gonad at 11.5 days postcoitus (dpc). At 12.5 dpc, testicular cords form, morphologically distinguishing the male gonad from the ovary. From this stage onwards, Sox9 expression is restricted to the Sertoli cell lineage and(More)
Surface appendages such as bristles, feathers and hairs exhibit both long- and short-range order. In the frizzled 6 null (Fz6(-/-)) mouse the orientations of the earliest born hair follicles are uncorrelated, but over time the follicles reorient to create patterns that are characterized by a high degree of local order. By quantifying follicle orientations(More)
The mammalian hair follicle unit consists of a central follicle and a series of associated structures: sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscles, Merkel cells, and sensory nerve endings. The architecture of this multicellular structure is highly polarized with respect to the body axes. Previous work has implicated Frizzled6 (Fz6)-mediated planar cell polarity(More)
The objective of this study was to develop a novel EvaGreen (EG) based real-time PCR technique for the simultaneous detection of Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and Equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) genomes from equine nasal swabs. Viral genomes were identified based on their specific melting temperatures (T m), which are 88.0 and 84.4 °C for EHV-1 and EHV-4,(More)
Monomeric (m)Eos2 is an engineered photoactivatable fluorescent protein widely used for super-resolution microscopy. We show that mEos2 forms oligomers at high concentrations and forms aggregates when labeling membrane proteins, limiting its application as a fusion partner. We solved the crystal structure of tetrameric mEos2 and rationally designed improved(More)
In sexual species, fertilization of oocytes produces individuals with alleles derived from both parents. Here we use pluripotent stem cells derived from somatic cells to combine the haploid genomes from two males to produce viable sons and daughters. Male (XY) mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (Father #1) were used to isolate subclones that had(More)
UNLABELLED Interleukin 6 (IL-6) facilitates the differentiation of B cells to immunoglobulin-secreting cells and is reported to be a proliferative factor in some tumors. In this study, we examined IL-6 production in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and the proliferation of tumor cells following IL-6 treatment in vitro and in vivo. We analyzed the(More)
CpG island methylation within promoters is known to silence individual genes in cancer. The involvement of this process in silencing gene pairs controlled by bidirectional promoters is unclear. In a screen for hypermethylated CpG islands in cancer, bidirectional promoters constituted 25.2% of all identified promoters, which matches with the genomic(More)