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In addition to the G2019S mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2), which is particularly frequent in patients of Ashkenazi Jewish and Northern African origin, three amino acid substitutions (R1441C, R1441G, and R1441H), all at the same residue (R1441), have been identified as important genetic causes of Parkinson disease (PD). To evaluate(More)
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder without effective treatment. It is generally sporadic with unknown etiology. However, genetic studies of rare familial forms have led to the identification of mutations in several genes, which are linked to typical Parkinson's disease or parkinsonian disorders. The pathogenesis of(More)
NURR1 is a transcription factor essential for the development, survival, and functional maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and NURR1 is a potential susceptibility gene for Parkinson's disease (PD). To determine whether NURR1 gene expression is altered in patients with PD, we measured its expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by loss of dopaminergic and nondopaminergic neurons, leading to a variety of motor and nonmotor symptoms. In addition to environmental factors, genetic predisposition and specific gene mutations have been shown to play an important role in the(More)
The neurodegenerative diseases are a diverse group of disorders characterized by progressive loss of specific groups of neurons. These diseases affect different populations, and have a variable age of onset, clinical symptoms, and pathological findings. Variants in the FUS gene, which encodes an RNA-binding protein, have been identified as causative or risk(More)
PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) is a recently identified gene, mutations of which cause levodopa-responsive parkinsonism. An over-expression of wild-type PINK1 protects neurons from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. We studied the effects of PINK1 suppression using small interfering RNA (siRNA), which can inhibit PINK1 mRNA expression up(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) has been proposed to result from a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure. Dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been implicated in neuron degeneration and in pathogenesis of PD. Nurr1, a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, is a potential susceptibility gene for PD. In this in vitro(More)
Recently, the rs3129882 variant in intron 1 of HLA-DRA was found to be associated with late-onset sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) in Americans of European ancestry. To evaluate whether the same variant is related to PD in Chinese population, we investigated late-onset sporadic PD patients of Chinese Han ethanicity in Mainland China. We found significant(More)