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Surface appendages such as bristles, feathers and hairs exhibit both long- and short-range order. In the frizzled 6 null (Fz6(-/-)) mouse the orientations of the earliest born hair follicles are uncorrelated, but over time the follicles reorient to create patterns that are characterized by a high degree of local order. By quantifying follicle orientations(More)
The mammalian hair follicle unit consists of a central follicle and a series of associated structures: sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscles, Merkel cells, and sensory nerve endings. The architecture of this multicellular structure is highly polarized with respect to the body axes. Previous work has implicated Frizzled6 (Fz6)-mediated planar cell polarity(More)
In mammals, a set of anatomically diverse polarity processes - including axon growth and guidance, hair follicle orientation, and stereociliary bundle orientation in inner ear sensory hair cells - appear to be mechanistically related, as judged by their dependence on vertebrate homologues of core tissue polarity/planar cell polarity (PCP) genes in(More)
An antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) was established based on two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the quantification of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Two p26-specific monoclonal antibodies were developed in mice. The mAb 9H8 was coated in microtiter plates as the capture antibody; the other mAb, 1G11, was coupled to(More)
Eukaryotic signalling networks underlying the cell's ability to sense the gradient of chemotactic cues frequently have the dual property of perfect adaptation to spatially homogeneous inputs, and persistent activation by inputs that are spatially graded. This property is also shared by bacterial chemotaxis networks, raising the question of whether these two(More)
Frizzled proteins are the principal receptors for the Wnt family of ligands. They mediate canonical Wnt signaling together with Lrp5 and Lrp6 coreceptors. In conjunction with Celsr, Vangl, and a small number of additional membrane and membrane-associated proteins, they also play a central role in tissue polarity/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling.(More)
Skin is a highly heterogeneous tissue. Intra-dermal structures include hair follicles, arrector pili muscles, epidermal specializations (such as Merkel cell clusters), sebaceous glands, nerves and nerve endings, and capillaries. The spatial arrangement of these structures is tightly controlled on a microscopic scale--as seen, for example, in the orderly(More)
The objective of this study was to develop a novel EvaGreen (EG) based real-time PCR technique for the simultaneous detection of Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and Equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) genomes from equine nasal swabs. Viral genomes were identified based on their specific melting temperatures (T m), which are 88.0 and 84.4 °C for EHV-1 and EHV-4,(More)
In mammals, hair follicles cover most of the body surface and exhibit precise and stereotyped orientations relative to the body axes. Follicle orientation is controlled by the planar cell polarity (PCP; or, more generally, tissue polarity) system, as determined by the follicle mis-orientation phenotypes observed in mice with PCP gene mutations. The present(More)
Stem cells reside in a complex milieu during development, or in adult tissues, as well as in culture conditions. Their decision to differentiate, self-renew, or migrate is a result of an integrated response to extracellular stimuli, which are chemical, physical, and mechanical in nature. In recent years, research has shown that the mechanical properties of(More)