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This article describes coherent gradient sensing ͑CGS͒ as an optical, full-field, real-time, nonintrusive, and noncontact technique for the measurement of curvatures and nonuniform curvature changes in film–substrate systems. The technique is applied to the study of curvature fields in thin Al films ͑6 ␮m͒ deposited on thin circular silicon wafers ͑105 ␮m͒(More)
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