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Two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal populations enables optical recording of spiking activity in living animals, but standard laser scanners are too slow to accurately determine spike times. Here we report in vivo imaging in mouse neocortex with greatly improved temporal resolution using random-access scanning with acousto-optic deflectors. We obtained(More)
Rodents are frequently used to model damage and diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to functional deficits. Impaired locomotor function is currently evaluated by using scoring systems or biomechanical measures. These methods often suffer from limitations such as subjectivity, nonlinearity and low sensitivity, or focus on a few very(More)
Formation and maintenance of a neuronal network is based on a balance between plasticity and stability of synaptic connections. Several molecules have been found to regulate the maintenance of excitatory synapses but nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in synaptic stabilization versus disassembly at inhibitory synapses. Here, we(More)
We have generated a transgenic rat model using RNAi and used it to study the role of the membrane protein Nogo-A in synaptic plasticity and cognition. The membrane protein Nogo-A is expressed in CNS oligodendrocytes and subpopulations of neurons, and it is known to suppress neurite growth and regeneration. The constitutively expressed polymerase II-driven(More)
The membrane protein Nogo-A is known as an inhibitor of axonal outgrowth and regeneration in the CNS. However, its physiological functions in the normal adult CNS remain incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of Nogo-A in cortical synaptic plasticity and motor learning in the uninjured adult rodent motor cortex. Nogo-A and its receptor NgR1(More)
Intravital microscopy such as in vivo imaging of brain dynamics is often performed with custom-built microscope setups controlled by custom-written software to meet specific requirements. Continuous technological advancement in the field has created a need for new control software that is flexible enough to support the biological researcher with innovative(More)
Anatomically incomplete spinal cord injuries are often followed by considerable functional recovery in patients and animal models, largely because of processes of neuronal plasticity. In contrast to the corticospinal system, where sprouting of fibers and rearrangements of circuits in response to lesions have been well studied, structural adaptations within(More)
Motor skills represent high-precision movements performed at optimal speed and accuracy. Such motor skills are learned with practice over time. Besides practice, effects of motivation have also been shown to influence speed and accuracy of movements, suggesting that fast movements are performed to maximize gained reward over time as noted in previous(More)
Functional recovery following central nervous system injuries is strongly influenced by rehabilitative training. In the clinical setting, the intensity of training and the level of motivation for a particular task are known to play important roles. With increasing neuroscience studies investigating the effects of training and rehabilitation, it is important(More)
carbon isotopes and the study of prehistoric diet. Critical review in food science and nutrition, 30 (4), 373-385. Rift Valley lake fish and shellfish provided brain-specific nutrition for early Homo. (1976). Carbohydrate composition of central nervous system synapses. Analysis of isolated synaptic junctional complexes and postsynaptic densities. Biochimica(More)