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Synaptic plasticity is a key mechanism for chronic pain. It occurs at different levels of the central nervous system, including spinal cord and cortex. Studies have mainly focused on signaling proteins that trigger these plastic changes, whereas few have addressed the maintenance of plastic changes related to chronic pain. We found that protein kinase M(More)
Neuropathic pain is caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system. Investigations have mainly focused on the spinal mechanisms of neuropathic pain, and less is known about cortical changes in neuropathic pain. Here, we report that peripheral nerve injury triggered long-term changes in excitatory synaptic transmission in layer II/III(More)
Homeostatic plasticity is important to stabilize the activity level of neuronal circuits. Molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal homeostatic plasticity in response to activity deprivation are not completely understood. We found that prolonged alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor blockade by(More)
The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that controls translational efficiency and regulates synaptic plasticity. Here, we report that FMRP is involved in dopamine (DA) modulation of synaptic potentiation. AMPA glutamate receptor subtype 1 (GluR1) surface expression and phosphorylation in response to D1 receptor stimulation(More)
Neuropathic pain, often caused by nerve injury, is commonly observed among patients with different diseases. Because its basic mechanisms are poorly understood, effective medications are limited. Previous investigations of basic pain mechanisms and drug discovery efforts have focused mainly on early sensory neurons such as dorsal root ganglion and spinal(More)
Affective disorders, which include anxiety and depression, are highly prevalent and have overwhelming emotional and physical symptoms. Despite human brain imaging studies, which have implicated the prefrontal cortex including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), little is known about the ACC in anxiety disorders. Here we show that the ACC does modulate(More)
The excessive activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by glutamate results in neuronal excitotoxicity. cAMP is a key second messenger and contributes to NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity. Adenylyl cyclases 1 (AC1) and 8 (AC8) are the two major calcium-stimulated ACs in the central nervous system. Previous studies demonstrate AC1 and(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). The animal model of FXS, Fmr1 knockout mice, have deficits in the Morris water maze and trace fear memory tests, showing impairment in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, results for synaptic(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a key cellular model for studying mechanisms for learning and memory. Previous studies reported that the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) is critical for gene regulation, and behavioral learning and memory. Less is known about the roles of CaMKIV in cortical plasticity and trace fear memory. Here we have(More)
BACKGROUND The Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms AC1 and AC8, couple NMDA receptor activation to cAMP signaling pathways in neurons and are important for development, learning and memory, drug addiction and persistent pain. AC1 and AC8 in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the spinal cord were previously shown to be important in(More)