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Recently Zhang et al. cloned a gene that is expressed only in adipose tissue of the mouse. The obese phenotype of the ob/ob mouse is linked to a mutation in the obese gene that results in expression of a truncated inactive protein. Human and rat homologues for this gene are known. Previous experiments predict such a hormone to have a hypothalamic target.(More)
Cart (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) was first identified to be a major brain mRNA up-regulated by cocaine and amphetamine. The CART protein has been established as a satiety factor closely associated with the action of leptin. To assess CART's role as an anorexigenic signal, we have generated CART-deficient mice by gene targeting. On a high(More)
Mutations in the obese gene (OB) or in the gene encoding the OB receptor(OB-R) result in obesity, infertility and diabetes in a variety of mouse phenotypes. The demonstration that OB protein (also known as leptin) can normalize body weight in ob/ob mice has generated enormous interest. Most human obesity does not appear to result from a mutant form of(More)
CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuropeptides expressed throughout the central nervous system and have been implicated in a variety of physiological processes. Research on the many physiological processes involving CART peptide have been somewhat limited by the lack of an identified CART antagonist. Development of CART(More)
Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a serine protease that can cleave insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3), thereby decreasing its affinity for insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Dissociation of the IGF-I-IGFBP3 complex renders IGF-I available to bind to its receptor and stimulates cellular proliferation. We evaluated the(More)
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a neuropeptide found throughout the brain, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and hypothalamus. CART was initially discovered and named based on the upregulation of its mRNA in the striatum after acute cocaine or amphetamine injection in rats. CART is also known to participate in a wider(More)
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) belongs to the family of gut-neuropeptide hormones which also includes glucagon, secretin and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). All receptors for this peptide hormone family seem to involve similar signal transduction pathways. Upon hormone binding, these receptors interact with guanine nucleotide binding protein(More)
Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.—Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and(More)
Acknowledgements: The Danish Biotechnology Center for Cellular Communication and the Lundbeck Foundation supported this work. We would also like to express our gratitude to Juliano Olsen for excellent technical assistance. Abstract Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of(More)