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Insulin-dependent diabetes is a complex multifactorial disorder characterized by loss or dysfunction of β-cells. Pancreatic β-cells differ in size, glucose responsiveness, insulin secretion and precursor cell potential; understanding the mechanisms that underlie this functional heterogeneity might make it possible to develop new regenerative approaches.(More)
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous "multipurpose" organelles of eukaryotic cells. Their matrix enzymes catalyze mainly catabolic and anabolic reactions of lipid metabolism, thus contributing to the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Since most metabolites must be actively transported across the peroxisomal membrane and since individual proteins and protein complexes(More)
Dictyostelium responds to hyperosmotic stress of 400 mOsm by a rapid reduction of its cell volume to 50%. The reduced cell volume is maintained as long as these osmotic conditions prevail. Dictyostelium does not accumulate compatible osmolytes to counteract the osmotic pressure applied. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we demonstrate that during(More)
Cdc48p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its highly conserved mammalian homologue VCP (valosin-containing protein) are ATPases with essential functions in cell division and homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum vesicles. Both are mainly attached to the endoplasmic reticulum, but relocalize in a cell cycle-dependent manner: Cdc48p enters the nucleus(More)
The evolutionary conserved protein Cdc48/VCP is involved in various cellular processes, such as protein degradation, membrane fusion and chaperone activity. Increased levels of Cdc48/VCP correlate with cancer, whereas Cdc48/VCP at endogenous levels has been proposed to be a pathological effector in protein deposition diseases. Upon mutation Cdc48/VCP(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the fastest rising cancer in the United States and increasing in Europe, often occurs with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Mechanisms underlying NASH and NASH-induced HCC are largely unknown. We developed a mouse model recapitulating key features of human metabolic syndrome, NASH, and HCC by long-term feeding of a(More)
In this study yeast mitochondria were used as a model system to apply, evaluate, and integrate different genomic approaches to define the proteins of an organelle. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry applied to purified mitochondria identified 546 proteins. By expression analysis and comparison to other proteome studies, we demonstrate that the(More)
BACKGROUND Excessive formation of reactive oxygen species contributes to tissue injury and functional deterioration after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Especially, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are capable of opening the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, a harmful event in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. Thioredoxins are key players in(More)
The identification of 114 integral membrane proteins from Halobacterium salinarum was achieved using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS/MS) techniques, representing 20% of the predicted alpha-helical transmembrane proteins of the genome. For this experiment, a membrane preparation with only minor contamination by soluble proteins was(More)