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Endogenous small RNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by mechanisms conserved across metazoans. While the number of verified human miRNAs is still expanding, only few have been functionally annotated. To perform genetic screens for novel functions of miRNAs, we developed a library of vectors expressing the majority of cloned human miRNAs and created(More)
Several proteins, such as the placental/germ cell alkaline phosphatases (PLAPs), the stem cell factor receptor c-KIT, and the transcriptional regulator and marker of pluripotency OCT3/4, have been found in both normal immature and malignant germ cells, known as carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (CIS/ITGCNU). In the present(More)
OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and, most recently, LIN28 have been identified as key regulators of pluripotency in mammalian embryonic and induced stem cells, and are proven to be crucial for generation of the mouse germ-cell lineage. These factors are a hallmark of certain histological types of germ-cell tumours (GCTs). Here, we report novel information on the(More)
Human germ cell tumors (GCTs) may have variable histology and clinical behavior, depending on factors such as sex of the patient, age at clinical diagnosis, and anatomical site of the tumor. Some types of GCT, i.e., the seminomas/germinomas/dysgerminomas and embryonal carcinomas (the stem cell component of nonseminomas), have pluripotent potential, which is(More)
Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the precursor of malignant testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) of adolescents and young adults, being the neoplastic counterpart of primordial germ cells/gonocytes. Carcinoma in situ cells will develop into invasive seminoma/nonseminoma. Gonadoblastoma (GB) is the precursor of invasive GCTs in dysgenetic gonads, predominantly(More)
Testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) of adolescents and adults can be subdivided into seminomas (referred to as dysgerminomas of the ovary) and non-seminomas, all referred to as type II GCTs. They originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS), being the malignant counterparts of primordial germ cells (PGCs)/gonocytes. The invasive components mimic embryogenesis,(More)
Testicular germ-cell tumors (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults originate from intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN), which is composed of the malignant counterparts of embryonal germ cells. ITGCN cells are characterized, among others, by the presence of stem cell factor receptor c-KIT. Once established, ITGCN will always progress to invasiveness.(More)
PURPOSE Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency and microsatellite instability (MSI) are associated with cisplatin resistance in human germ cell tumors (GCTs). BRAF mutation (V600E) is found in MSI colorectal cancers. The role of RAS/RAF pathway mutations in GCT treatment response is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS Two patient cohorts were investigated: 100(More)
BACKGROUND In the development of the human ovary, the second trimester includes the transition from oogonial replication to primordial follicle formation. The present study was carried out to assess differentiation and proliferation of germ cells in a series of female gonads from 19 fetuses from the second and third trimester, and two neonates. METHODS(More)
Differences in the global methylation pattern, ie hyper- as well as hypo-methylation, are observed in cancers including germ cell tumours (GCTs). Related to their precursor cells, GCT methylation status differs according to histology. We investigated the methylation pattern of normal fetal, infantile, and adult germ cells (n = 103) and GCTs (n = 251) by(More)