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Endogenous small RNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression by mechanisms conserved across metazoans. While the number of verified human miRNAs is still expanding, only few have been functionally annotated. To perform genetic screens for novel functions of miRNAs, we developed a library of vectors expressing the majority of cloned human miRNAs and created(More)
Several proteins, such as the placental/germ cell alkaline phosphatases (PLAPs), the stem cell factor receptor c-KIT, and the transcriptional regulator and marker of pluripotency OCT3/4, have been found in both normal immature and malignant germ cells, known as carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified (CIS/ITGCNU). In the present(More)
Human germ cell tumors (GCTs) may have variable histology and clinical behavior, depending on factors such as sex of the patient, age at clinical diagnosis, and anatomical site of the tumor. Some types of GCT, i.e., the seminomas/germinomas/dysgerminomas and embryonal carcinomas (the stem cell component of nonseminomas), have pluripotent potential, which is(More)
Testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) of adolescents and adults can be subdivided into seminomas (referred to as dysgerminomas of the ovary) and non-seminomas, all referred to as type II GCTs. They originate from carcinoma in situ (CIS), being the malignant counterparts of primordial germ cells (PGCs)/gonocytes. The invasive components mimic embryogenesis,(More)
OCT3/4, NANOG, SOX2 and, most recently, LIN28 have been identified as key regulators of pluripotency in mammalian embryonic and induced stem cells, and are proven to be crucial for generation of the mouse germ-cell lineage. These factors are a hallmark of certain histological types of germ-cell tumours (GCTs). Here, we report novel information on the(More)
Differences in the global methylation pattern, ie hyper- as well as hypo-methylation, are observed in cancers including germ cell tumours (GCTs). Related to their precursor cells, GCT methylation status differs according to histology. We investigated the methylation pattern of normal fetal, infantile, and adult germ cells (n = 103) and GCTs (n = 251) by(More)
BACKGROUND In the development of the human ovary, the second trimester includes the transition from oogonial replication to primordial follicle formation. The present study was carried out to assess differentiation and proliferation of germ cells in a series of female gonads from 19 fetuses from the second and third trimester, and two neonates. METHODS(More)
Spermatocytic seminomas are solid tumors found solely in the testis of predominantly elderly individuals. We investigated these tumors using a genome-wide analysis for structural and numerical chromosomal changes through conventional karyotyping, spectral karyotyping, and array comparative genomic hybridization using a 32 K genomic tiling-path resolution(More)
PTEN is frequently inactivated during the development of many cancers, including prostate cancer, and both bi-allelic and mono-allelic PTEN inactivation may contribute to tumorigenesis. PTEN mutations in clinical cancer specimens can easily be recorded but mono- or bi-allelic gene deletions are often difficult to assess. We performed a comprehensive study(More)
Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the testis is the pre-invasive stage of type II testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults. These tumours are the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Caucasian adolescents and young adults. In dysgenetic gonads, the precursor of type II GCTs can be either CIS or a lesion known as gonadoblastoma (GB). CIS/GB(More)