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Pluripotent stem cells provide a potential solution to current epidemic rates of heart failure by providing human cardiomyocytes to support heart regeneration. Studies of human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in small-animal models have shown favourable effects of this treatment. However, it remains unknown whether clinical-scale(More)
The mammalian heart has a very limited regenerative capacity and, hence, heals by scar formation. Recent reports suggest that haematopoietic stem cells can transdifferentiate into unexpected phenotypes such as skeletal muscle, hepatocytes, epithelial cells, neurons, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes, in response to tissue injury or placement in a new(More)
Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into cardiovascular cells provides a model for studying molecular mechanisms of human cardiovascular development. Although it is known that chromatin modification patterns in ESCs differ markedly from those in lineage-committed progenitors and differentiated cells, the temporal dynamics of(More)
Stem cell differentiation involves changes in transcription, but little is known about translational control during differentiation. We comprehensively profiled gene expression during differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into embryoid bodies by integrating transcriptome analysis with global assessment of ribosome loading. While protein(More)
Following marrow transplantation in both patients and animals, cells containing donor nuclei have been detected in a variety of nonhematopoietic tissue. Whether this phenomenon represents transdifferentiation of marrow-derived cells, infiltration of blood cells, or cell fusion is still controversial. In muscle, where cell fusion occurs during normal(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are promising for cardiac repair, but directing their differentiation toward cardiomyocytes remains challenging. We investigated whether the heart guides ES cells toward cardiomyocytes in vivo and whether allogeneic ES cells were immunologically tolerated. Undifferentiated mouse ES cells consistently formed cardiac teratomas in(More)
BACKGROUND Cardiomyocyte grafting augments myocyte numbers in the heart. We investigated (1) how developmental stage influences graft survival; (2) whether acutely necrotic or healing cardiac lesions support grafts; and (3) the differentiation and integration of cardiomyocyte grafts in injured hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS Cardiomyocytes from fetal,(More)
Transplantation studies in mice and rats have shown that human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) can improve the function of infarcted hearts, but two critical issues related to their electrophysiological behaviour in vivo remain unresolved. First, the risk of arrhythmias following hESC-CM transplantation in injured hearts has not been(More)
Cellular cardiomyoplasty using skeletal myoblasts may be beneficial for infarct repair. One drawback to skeletal muscle cells is their lack of gap junction expression after differentiation, thus preventing electrical coupling to host cardiomyocytes. We sought to overexpress the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) in differentiated skeletal myotubes,(More)
Skeletal myoblasts form grafts of mature muscle in injured hearts, and these grafts contract when exogenously stimulated. It is not known, however, whether cardiac muscle can form electromechanical junctions with skeletal muscle and induce its synchronous contraction. Here, we report that undifferentiated rat skeletal myoblasts expressed N-cadherin and(More)