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The most impressive property of outer hair cells (OHCs) is their ability to change their length at high acoustic frequencies, thus providing the exquisite sensitivity and frequency-resolving capacity of the mammalian hearing organ. Prestin, a protein related to a sulfate/anion transport protein, recently has been identified and proposed as the OHC motor(More)
1. The sensory functions of the inner ear (hearing and balance) critically depend on the precise regulation of two fluid compartments of highly desparate ion composition, i.e., the endolymph and the perilymph. 2. The parameters volume, ion composition, and pH need to be held at homeostasis irrespective of the hydration status of the total organism. 3.(More)
HYPOTHESIS Cochlear fluid pharmacokinetics can be better represented by three-dimensional (3D) finite-element simulations of drug dispersal. BACKGROUND Local drug deliveries to the round window membrane are increasingly being used to treat inner ear disorders. Crucial to the development of safe therapies is knowledge of drug distribution in the inner ear(More)
OBJECTIVE Acquired centralized tinnitus (ACT) is the most frequent type of chronic tinnitus. We introduce a cognitive neurophysiological ACT hypothesis based on centralized cognitive sensitization processes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Published cognitive sensitization processes were reviewed using PubMed. Furthermore, a Cochrane analysis was performed. (More)
CONCLUSION According to the presented data, speech-in-noise intelligibility (SI) does not correlate with olivocochlear efferent activity - as measured by contralateral suppression (CS) of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in humans with normal auditory threshold. OBJECTIVES Literature data indicate a possible role of the medial(More)
BACKGROUND Hereditary hearing impairment (HHI) is a heterogeneous class of disorders that shows various patterns of inheritance and involves a multitude of different genes. Mutations in the EYA4 gene are responsible for postlingual, progressive, autosomal dominant hearing loss at the DFNA10 locus. EYA4 is orthologous to the Drosophila gene eya ("eyes(More)
Active middle ear implants do not produce acoustic sounds but, rather, micromechanical vibrations. The stimulating signal does not leave the transducer as sound, but as a mechanical vibration, directly coupled to the auditory system and bypassing the normal route via air. In this paper, we review our experience with the TICA and the Carina middle ear(More)
Constitutive activation of the ras oncoprotein plays a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Particularly, ras-related protease expression such as the serine protease urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) has been implicated in mediating cancer cell invasion. Previous studies have shown that ras-mediated u-PA expression is regulated through the(More)
OBJECTIVES To study the safety and efficacy of continuous intratympanic dexamethasone-phosphate (Dex-P) for severe to profound sudden idiopathic sensorineural hearing (ISSHL) or sudden idiopathic anacusis after failure of systemic therapy. STUDY DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled multicenter trial. METHODS Patients with ISSHL and(More)
CONCLUSIONS The data presented herein form the basis for conducting randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of salvage treatment in patients with idiopathic sudden severe sensorineural hearing loss (but not anacusis) refractory to initial systemic therapy. Comparison of different application protocols and drug(More)