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UNLABELLED Diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) may be challenging. However, early diagnosis is important because immunosuppression is life-saving. Diagnostic criteria of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) were complex and purely meant for scientific purposes. This study of the IAIHG aims to define simplified diagnostic criteria for(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The progression of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is important to decide on the treatment of the virus. As liver biopsy and liver stiffness measurement for staging of fibrosis present limitations, circulating levels of miR-122 have been suggested as a novel biomarker to predict the extent of liver injury. We(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The incidence of hepatic granulomas is reported in 2-15% of liver biopsies. This study was carried out to evaluate the incidence and aetiology of hepatic granulomas in a German Institute of Pathology with specialization in liver diseases. METHODS A retrospective case review was performed on 12,161 liver biopsies of the Institute of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts following liver injury is the main culprit for hepatic fibrosis. Myofibroblasts show increased proliferation, migration, contraction, and production of extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) inhibit proliferation and(More)
Endothelin-1 is a powerful mitogen for various tumor and non-tumor cells. Its signaling cascade induces the inflammatory NF-kappaB complex, leading to expression of a number of target genes. In this context, MAPK p38 has been regarded as a potential phosphate donor for the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. In the present study in HeLa cells, we have found that ET-1(More)
AIM To investigate the role of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in primary hepatocellular and cholangiolar carcinomas of the liver. METHODS Immunohistochemical analysis was performed including antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD56 and TIA-1 in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of 35 liver resection specimens of hepatocellular or(More)
BACKGROUND Despite improvements in serological and radiological techniques, liver biopsy remains the most reliable way to diagnose diffuse hepatic disease and hepatic nodules. The indications for this invasive technique must be weighed against the small, but not negligible, risk of a complication. METHODS The indications for liver biopsy are summarized on(More)
UNLABELLED MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs) through translational repression or RNA degradation. Many fundamental biological processes are modulated by microRNAs, and an important role for microRNAs in carcinogenesis is emerging. Because understanding the pathogenesis of viral-associated(More)
Chronic infection is difficult to overcome because of exhaustion or depletion of cytotoxic effector CD8(+) T cells (cytotoxic T lymphoytes (CTLs)). Here we report that signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induced intrahepatic aggregates of myeloid cells that enabled the population expansion of CTLs (iMATEs: 'intrahepatic myeloid-cell aggregates for T(More)
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a small RNA virus and the infectious agent of hepatitis E that occurs worldwide either as epidemics in Asia caused by genotype 1 and 2 or as sporadic disease in industrialized countries induced by genotype 3 and 4. The frequency might be underestimated in central Europe as a cause of acute hepatitis. Therefore, we analyzed on(More)