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UNLABELLED Diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) may be challenging. However, early diagnosis is important because immunosuppression is life-saving. Diagnostic criteria of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) were complex and purely meant for scientific purposes. This study of the IAIHG aims to define simplified diagnostic criteria for(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts following liver injury is the main culprit for hepatic fibrosis. Myofibroblasts show increased proliferation, migration, contraction, and production of extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) inhibit proliferation and(More)
UNLABELLED MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs) through translational repression or RNA degradation. Many fundamental biological processes are modulated by microRNAs, and an important role for microRNAs in carcinogenesis is emerging. Because understanding the pathogenesis of viral-associated(More)
Chronic infection is difficult to overcome because of exhaustion or depletion of cytotoxic effector CD8(+) T cells (cytotoxic T lymphoytes (CTLs)). Here we report that signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induced intrahepatic aggregates of myeloid cells that enabled the population expansion of CTLs (iMATEs: 'intrahepatic myeloid-cell aggregates for T(More)
AIM To investigate the role of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in primary hepatocellular and cholangiolar carcinomas of the liver. METHODS Immunohistochemical analysis was performed including antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD56 and TIA-1 in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue of 35 liver resection specimens of hepatocellular or(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The progression of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is important to decide on the treatment of the virus. As liver biopsy and liver stiffness measurement for staging of fibrosis present limitations, circulating levels of miR-122 have been suggested as a novel biomarker to predict the extent of liver injury. We(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers have been reported to exhibit functional impairment. Possible explanations for this phenomenon are infection of HBV by DC or alteration of DC function by HBV. We therefore analyzed whether DC support the different steps of HBV infection and replication: uptake, deposition of the HBV genome in the(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The incidence of hepatic granulomas is reported in 2-15% of liver biopsies. This study was carried out to evaluate the incidence and aetiology of hepatic granulomas in a German Institute of Pathology with specialization in liver diseases. METHODS A retrospective case review was performed on 12,161 liver biopsies of the Institute of(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important human pathogen, which targets the liver extremely efficient, gaining access to hepatocytes by a so far unknown receptor and replicating in a hepatocyte-specific fashion. Cell differentiation seems to determine HBV replication. We here show that the level of hepatocyte differentiation, as indicated by hepatocyte(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology. Autoreactive T cells are thought to mediate liver injury, but the pathogenesis of AIH is poorly understood because of the lack of suitable animal models. We established a mouse model to investigate liver-specific T-cell responses and assess the effects(More)