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The eukaryotic mRNA 3' poly(A) tail and the 5' cap cooperate to synergistically enhance translation. This interaction is mediated, at least in part, by elF4G, which bridges the mRNA termini by simultaneous binding the poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) and the cap-binding protein, elF4E. The poly(A) tail also stimulates translation from the internal ribosome(More)
The rate-limiting step of eukaryotic protein synthesis is the binding of mRNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit, a step which is catalyzed by initiation factors of the eIF-4 (eukaryotic initiation factor 4) group: eIF-4A, eIF-4B, eIF-4E, and eIF-4 gamma. Infection of cells with picornaviruses of the rhino- and enterovirus groups causes a shut-off in translation(More)
Many picornaviruses cause a dramatic decrease in the translation of cellular mRNAs in the infected cell, without affecting the translation of their own RNA. Specific proteolysis of protein synthesis initiation factor eIF-4 gamma occurs during infection with rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, and aphthoviruses, apparently leading to an inability of the ribosomes(More)
A mammalian cell infected with a human rhinovirus or enterovirus has a much reduced capability to translate capped mRNAs (the host cell shutoff), while still allowing translation of uncapped viral RNA. Biochemical and genetic evidence suggests that the viral proteinase 2A induces cleavage of the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4 gamma (also known as(More)
The cleavage specificities of the 2A proteinases from coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) and human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2) on oligopeptide substrates have been determined. Comparison of the specificity of CVB4 2A proteinase with that of HRV2 2A proteinase allowed cleavable peptides to be designed using the common motif IIe/Leu-X-Thr-X*Gly; little resemblance to the viral(More)
Poliovirus and human rhinovirus 2A proteinases are known to stimulate translation initiation on the cognate viral Internal Ribosome Entry Segments (IRESes). The molecular mechanism of this translational transactivation was investigated in vitro using dicistronic mRNAs containing picornaviral IRESes as the intercistronic spacer and purified human rhinovirus(More)
The crystal structure of the 2A proteinase from human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2-2A(pro)) has been solved to 1.95 A resolution. The structure has an unusual, although chymotrypsin-related, fold comprising a unique four-stranded beta sheet as the N-terminal domain and a six-stranded beta barrel as the C-terminal domain. A tightly bound zinc ion, essential(More)
Rhino- and enteroviruses encode two proteinases, 2A and 3C, which are responsible for the processing of the viral polyprotein and for cleavage of several cellular proteins. To identify further targets of the 2A proteinase of human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2), an in vitro cleavage assay followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis was employed. Cytokeratin(More)
Proteinase 2A of human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2 2A) was expressed in Escherichia coli and partially purified; the preparation was used to study various enzymatic parameters. Using a 16-amino acid peptide representing the native cleavage region of HRV2 2A, an apparent Km value of 5.4 x 10(-4) mol/liter was determined. A minimum of 9 amino acids(More)
In order to evaluate the variability of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), field isolates originating from different European regions and inducing different clinical pictures in pigs have been molecularly characterised. The regions targeted were the poly(C) tract, a part of the 5'-UTR (360 nucleotides), the Leader gene (201 nucleotides), the complete capsid(More)