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Mitochondria play a key part in the regulation of apoptosis (cell death). Their intermembrane space contains several proteins that are liberated through the outer membrane in order to participate in the degradation phase of apoptosis. Here we report the identification and cloning of an apoptosis-inducing factor, AIF, which is sufficient to induce apoptosis(More)
Activated human T lymphocytes exposed to apoptotic stimuli targeting mitochondria (i.e. staurosporine), enter an early, caspase-independent phase of commitment to apoptosis characterized by cell shrinkage and peripheral chromatin condensation. We show that during this phase, AIF is selectively released from the intermembrane space of mitochondria, and that(More)
The barrier function of mitochondrial membranes is perturbed early during the apoptotic process. Here we show that the mitochondria contain a caspase-like enzymatic activity cleaving the caspase substrate Z-VAD.afc, in addition to three biological activities previously suggested to participate in the apoptotic process: (a) cytochrome c; (b) an(More)
Activation of caspases is recognized as a key element in the apoptotic process. However, new evidence is drawing attention to the emergent role of cell death pathways where caspases are not involved. Recent advances in the molecular understanding of these new ways to die, called caspase-independent, have revealed that mitochondria play an important role via(More)
Programmed necrosis induced by DNA alkylating agents, such as MNNG, is a caspase-independent mode of cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). After poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, calpain, and Bax activation, AIF moves from the mitochondria to the nucleus where it induces chromatinolysis and cell death. The mechanisms underlying the nuclear(More)
Although much emphasis has been laid on the role of caspase in cell death, recent data indicate that, in many instances, mammalian cell death is caspase-independent. Thus, in many examples of mammalian cell death the 'decision' between death and life is upstream or independent of caspase activation. Similarly, it is unclear whether PCD of plants and fungi(More)
Cell death has been initially divided into apoptosis, in which the cell plays an active role, and necrosis, which is considered a passive cell death program. Intense research performed in the last decades has concluded that "programmed" cell death (PCD) is a more complex physiological process than initially thought. Indeed, although in most cases the PCD(More)
Acute inflammation was induced in pigs using a single subcutaneous turpentine injection. The acute phase serum protein response was analyzed using crossed immunoelectrophoresis and immunodiffusion. The concentration of C reactive protein and haptoglobin increases 5-7 times 48 h after the injection, whereas the concentration of an alpha 2-globulin, named pig(More)
The roles of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1 and -2 (ERK-1/2) in fetal lung development have not been extensively characterized. To determine if ERK-1/2 signaling plays a role in fetal lung branching morphogenesis, U-0126, an inhibitor of the upstream kinase MAP ERK kinase (MEK), was added to fetal lung(More)
Alkylating DNA-damage agents such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) trigger necroptosis, a newly defined form of programmed cell death (PCD) managed by receptor interacting protein kinases. This caspase-independent mode of cell death involves the sequential activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), calpains, BAX and AIF, which(More)